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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic
Khimenkov A.N., Vlasov A.N., Sergeev D.O., Volkov-Bogorodskii D.B., Stanilovskaya J.V. - Fluid dynamic geosystems in the permafrost. Part 1. Cryohydrodynamic geosystems pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.26319

Abstract: This article is devoted to the consideration of issues related to the formation of local zones with signs of dynamic metamorphism in permafrost. Data on the cryogenic formation structures with traces of plastic and discontinuous deformations, as well as signs of flow in a solid, liquid and gaseous form are analyzed. The possibility of using the fluid dynamical approach in the study of dynamic processes in the cryolithozone is considered. The development of the fluid dynamic topic necessitates consideration of non-traditional geocryological objects associated with fluid formations in the cryolithozone. The main attention is given to the structural method associated with the analysis of the features of the cryogenic formations structure and the method of actualism associated with the analysis of the conditions for the fluids formation. In the first part of the article, the paragenetic relationships between the features of the frozen soils formations on the Arctic coasts, the formation of inland water flows and the structural and texture features of the cryogenic formations are considered. A section of marine sediments in the area of the Nei-To lake in Central Yamal was chosen as the research object.
Averkina T.I. - Distribution, age and genesis of the synchrogenic sands on the Russian territories pp. 20-28

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.25809

Abstract: The object of this research is the synchrogenic sands that developed in the Russian territories. They are present in the coastal areas of the young Timan-Pechora basub and Pai-Khoi, north of the young West Siberian and Yano-Kolyma platforms, north and the center of the ancient Siberian platform; young Verkhoyano-Chukotka and ancient Baikal-Patomsk orogens, the upper zone of the ancient Altai-Sayan orogen, present riftogene Baikal as well as on some islands of the Arctic shelf. A schematic map of the extent of different genesis Quaternary sands within the cryolithozone of Russia is compiled. The main regularities of the spatial distribution syncryogenic sands have been identified on this basis and by analysis and synthesis of existing publications on the topic. Most often syncryogenic sands are part of Upper Pleistocene-Holocene complexes of marine, marine deltaic and alluvial genesis, rarely lacustrine and alluvial, glaciolacustrine, glaciofluvial and eolian. Additionally, more ancient Middle Pleistocene-Holocene formations on the West Siberian and Yano-Kolyma platforms and Early Pleistocene-Holocene on the Siberian platform are exposed. Syncryogenic sands occur in the upper part of the section of different geomorphic elements and often overlain epicryogenic one.
Vasil'chuk A.C., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Pollen characteristic of the Matyuisale Holocene ice-wedge complex in the north of the Gydan Peninsula pp. 29-47

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.26725

Abstract: The two outcrops of Holocene peat with ice wedges in the mouth of Salemlekabtambda River in the Mammoth Peninsula are the object of the study, such as Holocene peat in the bog meadow of Kara Sea and the peat inset in the 15 m terrace. Ice wedges occur in the meadow bog sediments, their height is about 1.5 m. The height of ice wedges in the terrace sediments is about 4.5 m. We studied pollen spectra both, in the ice wedges and their host sediments, as well as determined isotope composition of ice wedges. Series of 14C ages have been obtained. The obtained isotopic and pollen data demonstrate that in the North of the Gydan Peninsula the Holocene optimum was the time of increase of climate continentality. Summer was warmer by 1-3°C than today, and winter was by 2-3°C colder. The intensity of frost cracking and ice wedge formation increased both in organic and mineral alluvial and alluvial-marine sediments.
Khimenkov A.N., Vlasov A.N., Volkov-Bogorodskii D.B., Sergeev D.O., Stanilovskaya J.V. - Fluid dynamic geosystems in the permafrost. Part 2. Cryolithodynamic and cryogaseous dynamic geosystems pp. 48-70

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.26377

Abstract: The second part of the article is devoted to the consideration of the conditions for the development of two types of fluids in permafrost: frozen soils, and ice flows and gas flows. This work is hampered by the lack of a corresponding conceptual and terminological base, developed classifications, systematized features, differentiation of genetically distinct dynamic formations in frozen soils. In this work, the conceptual fluid dynamics terminology used in geology is analyzed and the possibility of its use in geocryology is considered. The main attention is concentrated on the construction of phenomenological models for the fluids formation in permafrost, supplemented by the structural method and by the method of actualism. The conditions for the development of various types of lithogenous fluids are analyzed: through the formation of a nucleus of rigidity, the motion of frozen soils along the slope, subaquatic landslides, and folding at the lateral surface of growing ice wedges. Based on the analysis of the structure of the gas emission crater (Yamal Crater), the possibility and conditions of gas filtration through icy frozen soils are considered. A mathematical model of the pressure filtration of gas fluids in structurally heterogeneous soils is proposed on the basis of the Brinkman equation applied to the frozen soils.
Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Paragenetic ensembles of ice wedges with ice of different origin pp. 71-112

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.26673

Abstract: The study of the combinations of various types of ground and surface ice as paragenetic complexes are of particular interest, in order to understand the conditions of the ice formation. The following ice ensembles are examined: a) paragenetic combinations of ice wedge, ice with segregated and injection (intrusive) segregated ice in palsa and pingo cores, b) paragenetic combinations of ice wedge with massive ice, c) paragenetic combinations of ice wedge with ground icing (aufeis) and d) paragenetic combinations of ice wedge with glaciers and even icebergs ice. Among the main conclusions of the conducted research are the following claims: 1) Ice wedges form paragenetic combination with many types of underground and aboveground ice; 2) paragenesis of the wedges with anchor ice can be found in both, palsas and pingos.
Lanscapes of Cold Regios
Chizhova J.N. - The deuterium excess in three snowfalls in the Caucasus and the Polar Urals and the corresponding HYSPLIT back trajectories of air mass pp. 113-126

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2018.2.26985

Abstract: The article discusses variations in the values of δ18O, δ2H, dexc of snow on Krasnaya Polyana, the southern slope of Elbrus and on the transect from Konosha to the Polar Urals. In each of the described snowfalls, the deuterium excess is a unique isotope mark of the prevailing process involved in the formation of the isotope composition of the snow cover. To interpret the values of obtained isotopes, we used the method of back trajectories by the HYSPLIY model. The main goal of the work is to demarcate the main processes responsible for the formation of the isotope composition of snow. On the Aibga slope in Caucasus, there is addition of a continental water vapor on the southern slope of Elbrus – wind erosion, and isotope fractionation during condensation in a single snowfall from Konosha to the Polar Urals. The back trajectories of air mass movement help considering in more detail the formation of the isotope composition of individual snowfalls.
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