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Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue є 03/2019
Contents of Issue є 03/2019
Natural resources of the Arctic and Antarctica
Skrylnik Gennady Petrovich G.P. - Climatic morphogenesis and stability of geosystems of Wrangel Island pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2019.3.29896

Abstract: The subject of this study is the Wrangel Island - the island of polar bears (local name - "Umkilir"). There is no indigenous population as such; the area is 7,600 km², out of which 4,700 km² is occupied by mountains in its central part; the highest point is 1,096 m (the Soviet Mountain). The object of this research is the polar landscapes that develop in xerocryotic environment and are notable for the unique appearance and arrangement. The goal and objectives consist in cognizing the nature of the regional climatic morphogenesis and characteristics of the organization (structure and functionality) of geosystems that possess augmented stability in typical environments of landscape genesis and are extremely sensitive to the effects of anomalous factors and processes. The materials and methods contain the data from the author’s permafrost-geomorphological research in Chukotka (1957-1959; 1971-1972), as well as accessible literary sources. The conclusion is made that the current development of Wrangel island’s terrain is defined and controlled primarily by the specific polar climate (directed continentalization of natural conditions; small amount of solid precipitation; high "wind tension" in winter, when snow is intensively blown into the sea; etc.). This results in the absence of the active loci of glaciation. It is determines that the development of morphogenesis on the island proceeds along the path of persistent displacement of nivation processes by constantly expanding and already prevalent cryogenic processes. Such trend of landscape development will continue for the near future.
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic, Antarctic and mountain regions
Khimenkov A.N., Koshurnikov A.V., Karpenko F.S., Kutergin V.N., Gagarin V.E., Sobolev P.A. - On the filtration of gases in permafrost formations in light of the problem of degassing lithosphere of the Earth and formation of natural explosive processes in the cryolithozone pp. 16-38

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2019.3.29627

Abstract: The object of this research is the problem of gas filtration in permafrost formations. Currently, geocryology identifies the movement capability of gas fluids is only within the thawed formations. The subject of this study is the processes substantiating and accompanying redistribution of gas in the gas emission craters, as well as in the samples of artificial ice exposed to gas pressure. The authors examine the summarized data on the structure of craters and conditions for their emergence such as: the zones of accumulation of subterranean gas with abnormally high pressure in the permafrost strata; filtration of gas into high-temperature frozen rocks and subsurface ice; formation of gas-saturated ice soil rods and their explosive destruction. Particular attention is turned to the laboratory examination of gas filtration in frozen rocks and ice. The main research method became the comparative data analysis on the changes of properties of the frozen soils and ice as they war up within negative temperatures. Exploring the samples of ice exposed to gas pressure, the authors apply the methods of textural and structural studies in the passing, reflected and polarize light. It is established that the frozen rocks and subsurface ice allow gas filtration in the conditions of forming the corresponding ratio of characteristics of the rocks (strength, deformative, structural) that depend on their temperature and pressure of the underlying soil gas. It is revealed that the aforementioned ratio is determined by the geological, landscape and climatic conditions. With the help of structural studies, the authors are first to describe the processes accompanying gas filtration within ice in the laboratory conditions.
Budantseva N.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Variations of oxygen isotopes in rudiments of the modern syngenetic ice wedges in the lower Kolyma River pp. 39-53

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2019.3.30744

Abstract: The subject of this study is the change in oxygen isotopic values in rudiments of the modern ice wedges in the lower reaches of Kolyma River. The authors provide delta18O values from the Ambarchik creek and Pokhodsk in the north to mouth of the Omolon River and Kolymsky rural locality in south of the  region. The critical analysis on publications dedicated to Nizhnekolymsky District and the adjacent territories, which were compared by the oxygen isotopic data and winter air temperatures. Similar works on Alaska and Northern Canada are also analyzed. The key research method is field testing of the rudiments of modern ice wedges, as well as the analysis of publications containing the data of delta18O values in Nizhnekolymsky District. The main conclusions of conducted research consist in the confirmation of dependences, obtained approximately 30 years ago by Y. K. Vasilchuk on Siberia overall and Nizhnekolymsky District in particular, connecting the delta18O values in the rusiments of modern ice wedges with average January air temperatures. The authors trace the tends of variability of the delta18O values from north to south according to distance from the moisture source and increase the degree of continentality.
Landscapes of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Lytkin V.M. - Holocene Optimum treeline level in the Suntar-Khayata Range pp. 54-60

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2019.3.30385

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study of the Kamenka-1 section. This unique exposure is located 1,712 m asl in the upper reaches of the Kamenka River, on the northeastern slope of the mountains surrounding Mountain Mus-Khaya (2,959 m, Suntar-Khayata Range). A sample was taken from the stump horizon to determine the absolute age. A soil horizon was identified, the upper part of which contained numerous larch stumps in a natural (upright) position. The stump horizon is partially buried by a 1.5-m layer of fine rubble and silt. It has been dated to 5.37±0.05 ka BP (MPI-41), suggesting the position of treeline in the study region by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum. It is analyzed in the radiocarbon laboratory of the Melnikov Permafrost Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences using contemporary equipment – ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220 (made in U. S.), and chemical installation for benzene synthesis (Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
History of exploration of the Arctic and Antarctica
Magritskii D.V., Povalishnikova E.S., Frolova N.L. - History of studying the water runoff and water regime of the rivers of Russian Arctic zone in the XX Ц early XXI century pp. 61-96

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2019.3.29939

Abstract: This article describes the history of scientific applied study of water regime of rivers of the Russian sector of Arctic region in the XX-XXI centuries. The authors highlight the stages and key vectors of priority research, which, at different times were substantiated by the need for ensuring functionality of the Northern Sea Route and transport arteries of navigable waterways, usage and consumption of water actively developing since the second half of the XX century, examination and forecasting of the consequences of global warming, emergence of the new methods of data collection and processing, physical-mathematical modeling of hydrological processes.. The article presents a detailed analysis on largest Arctic rivers, as well as synthesis of works containing the estimation of their runoff, regional water resources, consistencies and factors of space-time fluctuation, including under the influence of the increasing climate changes and anthropogenic load. Another segment of research is formed by the studies of the transformation of runoff, water regime and dynamics of waters in the mouths of Arctic rivers.
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