Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue 03/2019
Contents of Issue 03/2019
Natural resources of the Arctic and Antarctica


Abstract: The subject of the study is Wrangel Island - the island of polar bears (local name - "Umkilir"). The object and subject of research is polar landscapes that develop in xero-cryo environments and differ in their unique novelty of appearance and organization.The goal and objectives are the cognition of the nature of regional climatic morphogenesis and the characteristics of the organization (structure and functioning) of geosystems that are highly resistant in typical landscape genesis and extremely vulnerable to the effects of anomalous factors and processes. Materials and methods the data of the long-term permafrost-geomorphological research of the author in Chukotka (1957-1959; 1971-1972) and available literary sources are used. In the analysis were used comparative geographical and informational methods. The main conclusions of the study are the modern development of the islands relief is determined and controlled primarily by a specific polar climate (directed continentalization of the natural environment; a small amount of solid precipitation; high "wind tension" in winter, when snow is intensively blown off into the sea; etc.). This is due to the lack of modern active foci of glaciation. Findings. The development of morphogenesis on the island proceeds along the path of the steady displacement of nivational processes by the constantly increasing and already dominant processes of cryogenesis.
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic, Antarctic and mountain regions
Khimenkov A.N., Koshurnikov A.V., Karpenko F.S., Kutergin V.N., Gagarin V.E., Sobolev P.A. - Filtration of gases in permafrost in the light of the problem of degassing the Earths lithosphere and the formation of natural explosive processes in the cryolithozone. pp. 16-38


Abstract: The objects of research is the problem of gas filtration in permafrost. Currently, this possibility is provided only for thawed (melted) rocks. The subject of study are gas emission funnels located in the North of Western Siberia and samples of artificial ice exposed to pressure from the gas. The data on the structure of the craters and the natural conditions of their formation were summarized. The cause of gas emission craters is: the formation of permafrost rocks in the thickness of zones of accumulation of underground gas with abnormally high pressure; gas filtration into high-temperature frozen rocks and underground ice; the formation of gas-saturated ice-ground rods and their explosive destruction. Particular attention was paid to laboratory studies of gas filtration in frozen rocks and ice. It has been established that in frozen rocks and underground ice is possible to filter the gas while forming the corresponding relations between the characteristics of the rocks (strength, deformative, structural) which depend on their temperature and the pressure of the internal ground gas. It is revealed that these relationships are determined by geological, landscape and climatic conditions. For the the first time, it was possible to identify the processes accompanying gas filtration in ice, with the help of structural studies.
Budantseva N.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Variations of oxygen isotopes in the modern syngenetic ice wedges in the lower Kolyma River pp. 39-53


Abstract: The subject of the study is the change in oxygen isotope values in modern ice wedges in the lower Kolyma River. The values of delta18O from the Ambarchik and Pokhodsk in the north to the mouth Omolon River are and Kolymsky in the south of the studied region presented. A critical analysis of the publications in the lower Kolyma River and in adjacent territories was carried out for which a comparison of oxygen isotope data with winter air temperatures was performed. Similar works for Alaska and northern Canada are also analyzed. The main research method is field testing of the veinlets of syngenetic ice wedges and analysis of publications containing data on delta18O values in the lower Kolyma River. The main conclusions of the study are the confirmation of the dependences obtained about 30 years ago by Yu.K. Vasilchuk for Siberia as a whole and in the lower Kolyma River, connecting the delta18O values of modern veinlets with average January air temperatures. Trends in the variability of delta18O values from north to south are traced as they move away from the moisture source and increase the degree of continentality.
Landscapes of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Lytkin V.M. - Holocene Optimum treeline level in the Suntar-Khayata Range pp. 54-60


Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study of the Kamenka-1 section. This unique exposure is located 1,712 m asl in the upper reaches of the Kamenka River, on the northeastern slope of the mountains surrounding Mt. Mus-Khaya (2,959 m, Suntar-Khayata Range). A soil horizon was identified, the upper part of which contained numerous larch stumps in a natural (upright) position. The stump horizon is partially buried by a 1.5-m layer of fine rubble and silt. It has been dated to 5.370.05 ka BP (MPI-41), suggesting the position of treeline in the study region by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum.
History of exploration of the Arctic and Antarctica
Magritskii D.V., Povalishnikova E.S., Frolova N.L. - Study history of the flow water and regime of the Arctic Rivers of Russia in the XXXXI century. pp. 61-96


Abstract: The article describes the scientific study history of the Russian Arctic Rivers water regime in the XXXXI centuries. The stages and main directions of priority research, identified at different times by the need to ensure the operation of the Northern Sea Route and the transport arteries of navigable rivers, water use and water consumption, actively developed from the second half of the XXth century, the study and prediction of the effects of global warming, the emergence of new methods and data processing, physical and mathematical modeling of hydrological processes. A detailed review of domestic and foreign studies of the hydrological regime of the Arctic rivers of Russia published over the past century has been made. Studies on the largest rivers of the Arctic and the main synthesis works, containing estimates of their runoff, water resources of the region, patterns and factors of spatial and temporal variability, including under the influence of increasing climate change and anthropogenic load, are presented. A separate unit is formed by studies of the runoff transformation, water regime and the dynamics of water in the mouths of arctic rivers.
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