Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Rubric "History of exploration of the Arctic and Antarctica"
History of exploration of the Arctic and Antarctica
Magritskii D.V., Povalishnikova E.S., Frolova N.L. - History of studying the water runoff and water regime of the rivers of Russian Arctic zone in the XX Ц early XXI century pp. 61-96


Abstract: This article describes the history of scientific applied study of water regime of rivers of the Russian sector of Arctic region in the XX-XXI centuries. The authors highlight the stages and key vectors of priority research, which, at different times were substantiated by the need for ensuring functionality of the Northern Sea Route and transport arteries of navigable waterways, usage and consumption of water actively developing since the second half of the XX century, examination and forecasting of the consequences of global warming, emergence of the new methods of data collection and processing, physical-mathematical modeling of hydrological processes.. The article presents a detailed analysis on largest Arctic rivers, as well as synthesis of works containing the estimation of their runoff, regional water resources, consistencies and factors of space-time fluctuation, including under the influence of the increasing climate changes and anthropogenic load. Another segment of research is formed by the studies of the transformation of runoff, water regime and dynamics of waters in the mouths of Arctic rivers.
Agafonova S. - Exploration of the river ice regime of the Russian Arctic Zone in the XX and XXI centuries pp. 81-94


Abstract: The ice phenomena on the Arctic rivers often cause hazardous hydrological conditions and processes: ice-clogging floods and ice dams; damage of hydraulic structures and the fleet during the spring ice run. In winter, the rivers are used for navigation and construction of ice crossings. The article demonstrates the key stages in studying the ice regime of Arctic Zone rivers in the XX century. The author examines the peculiarities of establishment of the monitoring system and methods of ice forecasts in the conditions of limited network of hydrological posts. The research presents the main approaches for assessing the possible changes in the characteristics of river ice regime, flowing in the severe climatic conditions, with variable anthropogenic impact and different scenarios of climate change. The most promising directions of the modern river ice research of in Russia and foreign countries are highlighted: the use of satellite imagery data; the development of new approaches in ice forecasts; assessment of the response of ice regime to the climate change. It is demonstrated that the advancement of these directions is possible on the basis of national and global experience.
Velikotsky M.A. - Formation of the modern polar marinism concept pp. 119-131


Abstract: The author of the article considers the formation of the polar marinism concept and describes the biography of N.A. Kulik, a bright and original researcher of the Arctic. Almost without supporters, he defended the ideas of marinism in the first quarter of the 20th century, when the ideas of "glacialists" seemed to have defeated the ideas of "marinists". The article contains the facts, on which the views of N.A. Kulik as a marine scientist were formed. Boulder loams have been the subject of scientific discussion for 300 years. The article presents the views of particular scientists who prove the correctness of the ideas of marinism.The article highlights the scientific merits of N.A. Kulik in substantiating the paleogeography of the post-Pliocene of the Arctic. He supported the new methods of studying boulder loam (foraminiferal analysis), applied the ideas of A.P. Karpinsky about alternating-latitudinal-meridional oscillations of the earth’ crust and the related climate changes the glaciation in the north. He raised the question of the southern boundary of continental and marine morains, defended the idea of glaciation during the marine transgression. N.A. Kulik had revived the scientific ideas of modern marinism.
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"History Illustrated" Website