Theoretical and Applied Economics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Theoretical and Applied Economics" > Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Payson D. - Peculiarities of application of the category of public good to the analysis of performance and institutional arrangement of space activities pp. 1-20


Abstract: This article examines the fundamental categories of targeted activity, including subjectivity and performance applicable to the modern space activities, as well as discusses the problematic questions of generation public good in the activity of hybrid corporate-public actors. This work is aimed at developing theoretical grounds for institutional projecting and organizational structuring in the area of space activities pertaining to space research and exploration, as well as elaborating alternate versions of organizational design that would ensure efficiency of such efforts with consideration of current institutional trajectory. The methodological base consists primarily of the principle of methodological individualism, viewed from the perspective the impact upon the targeted work of the researchers, explorer, and applied use of space, as well as analysis of results of the work using the value chains. The article also uses the general approaches towards analyzing the inter-sectoral cooperation in economics, as well as the theories of public good. The scientific novelty is defined by the identification of the peculiarities of application of the principles of targeted work by the members of space activities pertaining to state and private sectors; conducted analysis of emergence of specific public good in this sphere; peculiarities of the work of particular corporate-public actors and risks of emergence of institutional traps; proposed versions of organizational arrangement of the tasks of generating public good in the area of space activities. The main conclusion lies in the need for special organizational arrangement of this vector of space activities in terms of the work of hybrid corporate-public actors.
Regional economy
Danilova S.V., Abdulvaliev A.F. - Instruments of socioeconomic support of indigenous minorities of the North pp. 21-29


Abstract: The isolated lifestyle of the indigenous monitories of the North along with the minimized outside interaction becomes a hampering factor in development of secluded territories within any country.  In majority of countries with historical presence of indigenous people have unresolved issues pertaining to preservation of ethnic peculiarities of the indigenous lifestyle, including problems in the area of financial and social support. In the life on the territory of the ancestral habitat and preservation of ethnic customs, peoples of the North possess certain sources of material aid. Financial aid is given to them in forms of subsidies, grants, and one-time payments. In the course of this research, the authors studied the legislative bills, articles and monographs of foreign and Russian researchers, and volumes of statistical data pertaining to the instrument of support of the indigenous peoples of Russia and other territories. The research allowed determining the fact that in the group of countries in question the mechanism for support and preservation of the cultural heritage of the indigenous peoples of the North are very relative and carry attributes of formalism, which testifies to lack of effort spent on tackling this issue. There is a need for global transformation of the existent instruments of social support for the indigenous minorities of the North, which should have been enhanced by the experience of other states in the area of support and stimulation of the life of the indigenous peoples. The scientific approach towards the study of the livelihood of the indigenous minorities of the North allowed formulating new and efficient instruments for social support.
Solomonov M.P. - Quantitative assessment of the impact of factors upon the dynamics of products delivered to a region (on the example Yakutia) pp. 30-40


Abstract: Analysis of the factors influencing the dynamics of the products delivered to a region (on the example Yakutia) is the priority objective of the government in the context of socioeconomic development of the territory. An attempt is made to determine the correlation of the region’s capacity of energy, road network, transport and communications infrastructure, agglomeration factors, labor and capital with the output in the Northern region. Due to the costliness of factors in the North, it is always a matter of choice between the development of social infrastructure and rotational system. In the course of the analysis, the author applies the indexes of labor, capital, agglomeration and infrastructure capacity, as well as the volume of shipped products in accordance with the regional statistical data over the period from 2006 to 2016, operational data of sectoral ministries, results of 2002 and 2010 national censuses. The author applies the method of indexes of the factors cited for comparability to the dimensionless numbers from 0 to 10. The scientific novelty lies in the original combination of the analysis techniques of the impact of factors upon the volumes of shipped products. The author attempts to consider the effect of fluctuation of the ruble’s exchange rate upon the regional turnover distributing products at world prices. A profound retrospective and comparable data set allowed acquiring the most realistic results.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Melnikov Y.B., Onokhina E.A., Shitikov S.A. - Bottom-up and top-down analysis as a strategic component of management decisionmaking pp. 41-49


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of creating a work plan using the methods of bottom-up and top-down analysis. The authors based upon the hypothesis that every point of planning by the executive and planner is perceived either as a reference to a known algorithm of actions, or as a goal setting for work without concretization of means of achieving it. The goal is being viewed as a system of example models of results meant for planning and assessment of adequacy of results, both planned and achieved. The research carries a theoretical character and employs results of research in the area of management, modeling theory of Y. B. Melnikov, which is based on formal-constructive interpretation of the model and analysis of management decisionmaking process. Authors examine the process of transformation of the original plan, consisting of a single point (formulation of goal), towards a plan of which all main points are perceived by the executive as references to known to him algorithms of actions. The authors’ original interpretation of the methods of bottom-up and top-down analysis is schematically illustrated by the examples from the taxation practice.
Regional economy
Pavlova M., Samsonova I.V. - Approaches towards assessment of losses in reindeer herding in industrial development of territories of traditional nature management pp. 50-56


Abstract: This research explores the factors contributing to losses in traditional nature management of the communities of indigenous minorities of the North. The object of this research is the territory of negative impact upon environment in designated activity of industrial companies and its impact upon natural habitat, traditional livelihood, as well as economy and industry of the indigenous minorities. The authors examine the methodical approaches towards assessment of losses in reindeer herding, economic parameters contributing to losses and decrease in revenue for the local communities due to industrial development of their territories. The research is based on the practice of conducting scientific research on assessment of negative impact upon natural habitat of the indigenous minorities of the North in the territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Advancement of the proposed approach towards assessment of losses in private reindeer herding is based on the working methodical approaches towards economic assessment of biodiversity and designated industry in the territories of traditional nature management of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia, and Far East of the Russian Federation. The advantage of this method consists in simplification of accounting of the gross revenue from the perspective of agriculture. The studied approaches towards accounting of losses in reindeer herding alongside the industrial companies in the territories of traditional nature management are based on the resource approach with indirect calculation of losses. The calculation of the gross revenue is done using accounting of the cost of animal husbandry product and formation of revenue in agricultural organizations.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Gureev K.A., Gureeva E.G. - Assessment of the level of skills in the normalization of the work of experts in the intellectual professions in the business process management pp. 57-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the assessment of the skill level of workers in the intellectual professions using integrated assessment technologies, the distinguishing feature of which can be defined as the possibility of aggregating an unlimited number of heterogeneous factors significant for the employer. The main problem is described by the absence of a unified system for assessing the level of qualification with an "exit" to a complex coefficient, used for further normalization of labor and the definition of norms. The urgency of this issue is primarily defined by the problem that has arisen in practice – lack of the possibility of an adequate comparison of the level of complexity of the work performed by the specialists. The authors consider in detail the possibilities of applying modern mathematical tools for the purpose of forming a single coefficient that reflects the level of qualifications of employees. A lot of attention is paid to the issues of system flexibility and the possibilities of its adaptation for the activity of enterprises in various economic spheres. The proposed system is based on modern technology of integrated assessment, based on tree criteria and folding matrices. Advantages of the application of this system can determine the ability to take into account the inorganic number of factors in assessing the level of qualifications, as well as the formation of a single assessment, which allows comparing and ranking the staffing. An undeniable and significant advantage is the addition of the system with the "Active Expertise" tool, which allows the implementation of expert assessments while reducing the degree of manipulation with the result of individual experts. The novelty of the work is determined by the use of the specified tools, technologies and algorithms in the sphere, where previously it was not found. At the same time, the management of the staff of intellectual workers has a separate significance, since it is very problematic to normalize the number of employees in this category. The use of the aggregate assessment integrated into the work-time evaluation systems, in conjunction with the system for assessing the complexity of the work, makes it possible to compare the available volumes with the assessment of the level of labor and the required employment. This material is a logical continuation of methodological developments related to the assessment of the complexity of work and the definition of labor for their implementation. It is noteworthy that for the purposes of correlating the models of assessing the complexity of work and the skills of specialists, similar methods and tools are used, which makes it possible to further emphasize the justification of the technologies used.
Doroshenko M.V., Isupova O.A. - Approach to management of counteraction of external threats and challenges on the basis of standard management pp. 66-74


Abstract: This article considers the approach to management of counteraction of external threats and challenges on the basis of standard management. Under the standard management the authors imply the formation of the system of management based on application of managerial standards. The approach to corporate management using the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is examined. The new version of the standard (2015) recommends the formation of risk-oriented approach that, along with the other objectives, allows ensuring management of external threats and challenges. It is demonstrated that the management tool for external threats and challenges, in line with the requirements and terms of the indicated standards, can become the creation of the system of risk management in accordance with the risk-oriented managerial mindset. Such system as a part of the system of quality control system of an organization includes the components, functions, and stages recommended by the ISO new generation standard. The authors review the experience in application of such approach by the machine-building enterprises; generalize feasibility of the originally developed documentation of risk analysis for the more efficient process management on the basis of risk management. It is concluded that such approach can be implemented in virtually any organization in the conditions of the standard management.  
Mironov D.S. - Institutional problems of regulation and support in the area of development of industrial parks of the Sverdlovsk Region pp. 75-89


Abstract: This article examines the questions of state regulation and support of industrial parks as the growth drivers of regional industry. In the Sverdlovsk Region, due to the unresolved institutional-transformational and infrastructural problems, the industrial parks did not receive proper development; therefore, this topic gains special relevance. The author explores the following issues regarding the regulatory function of state institution in development of industrial parks: 1) deformation and ambiguity of institutional conditions, absence of regional legal and methodological framework for the development of cluster enterprises; 2) use of evaluation technique of the effect rather than effectiveness of tax preferences; 3) disjoint regulation of the activity of park structures by several ministries, etc. The goal of this research lies in determination and analysis of the functional problems of state institution in the area of regulation and support of innovative economic development of the industrial parks of Sverdlovsk Region, as well as formulation of recommendations on their improvement. As a practical solution, the author suggests to create the regional program for strategic development of industrial clusters; apply evaluation technique of the effectiveness of subsidies that is based on commensuration of the effect and costs, and implies the account of changes of wide variety of economic indexes; demarcate the authority for regulating the activity of industrial parks among the ministries; as well as makes recommendations on solution of the tasks on regional strategic development.
Production branches and markets economics
Abdiev M.Z. - The regulation of price mechanism in agrarian sector of economy pp. 90-97


Abstract: The goal of this research is the systemic examination of theoretical bases and practical issues pertinent to regulation of price mechanism of the economic management of agrarian sector in the conditions of development of market relations, considering their peculiarities and formulation of practical recommendations and methodical framework for their implementation in Chuy Region of the Kyrgyz Republic. The subject and object of this research is the complex of organizational-economic problems associated with the formation of price mechanism in agro-industry. The author makes emphasis on the development of specific proposals on pricing with regards to agrarian sector. The theoretical and methodological foundation contains the works of the classics of economic theory, leading foreign and Kyrgyz academic economists, legislative bills of the Kyrgyz Republic on the questions of development of agrarian economy. In the course of this study, the author applies the statistical and economic data, as well as the materials of agro-industries collected in Chuy Region of the Kyrgyz Republic. The scientific novelty is defined by formulation of the conceptual approaches towards improvement of pricing in agrarian sphere of economy; as well as suggestion to implement the experience of foreign countries, particularly the United States, on state regulation of price disparity in the agrarian sector.
Innovative economy
Batkovskiy M.A., Kravchuk P.V. - Economic evaluation of technological innovations pp. 98-109


Abstract: The subject of this study is the management of innovation and technological development of economic systems. The object of the study is a tool for the economic evaluation of technological innovations. Despite the substantial research conducted on this topic, until now, many of its aspects have not received a theoretical solution. There is a wide range of opinions of foreign and Russian scientists regarding the tool for the economic evaluation of technological innovation. The article analyzes the experience of this assessment in highly developed countries. It is noted that in most cases only the direct costs of the developer company are accounted for, and not public costs.The main directions of development of methodology and toolset for assessing technological innovations are determined. It was suggested to determine the effectiveness of their implementation in the production process, with consideration of the discounting of effects (results) and costs. It is based on an assessment of the impact of technological innovation on the tactical and technical characteristics of products created with its help. A multi-stage algorithm for estimating the data of results and costs, taking into account the life cycle of innovations, is proposed.The scientific novelty of the results obtained is determined by the use of a methodology that takes into account the interrelationship of technological innovations and the tactical and technical characteristics of products created with their help. A verbal-numerical scale of the values of the coefficient of their interrelation has been developed. The proposed evaluation indicators and algorithms from the calculation are an effective economic and mathematical tool for improving the management efficiency of the innovation and technological development of the economy.
Marketing research
Bozhuk S.G., Pletneva N.A., Evdokimov K.V. - Interrelation of marketing and innovations in realization of market orientation of the organization pp. 110-124


Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze the results of realizing the market-oriented concept in Russian automotive market and to determine the impact of marketing on its development. M. Porter and R. Grant's model of competitive forces was used to assess the prospects for changing the situation and the main moving forces determining the state of the automotive market. The research revealed that the impact of complementary goods and services: fuel (energy sources), car insurance, car loans, parking, maintenance and repair services is the main moving force in the automotive market. The car manufacturers should build their market orientation on the balance between innovation and marketing competences. As the main research method, the research employs the method of analysis and comparison of statistical reports and analytical articles, characterizing the state of markets for electric and hybrid automobiles in separate countries and the world as a whole, as well as previous studies by the authors. The novelty of this study consists in the approach to assessing the success of the market orientation of the car manufacturers in the field of marketing competencies based on criteria: information support, level of service and infrastructure development, the reputation of the manufacturer, the level of the model's popularity using the methodology for calculating single and integral competitiveness indicators.
Mathematical modeling and instrumental methods in economics
Lukashova I., Mokrousov N., Berejnaya O. - Methodology of assessing poverty at the individual level pp. 125-136


Abstract:  The object of this research is the assessment of poverty at the individual level; while the subject is the efficiency of implementation of mathematical modelling for the dynamic assessment of the impact of microcredit upon the financial well-being of clients of microlenders. The scientific interest towards this topic is substantiated by the constantly growing demand for microcredit products among the poor social groups of the Kyrgyz Republic, mostly from rural districts; promotion of microlending in strategic documents of country’s development, and the concurrent absence of formalized instruments allowing to measure the progress of elevation from poverty as a result of microlending. The logistic regression, which allows assessing the likelihood of poverty at the individual level, was selected as basis for creating the formalized instrument. The scientific novelty consists in the development of comprehensive methodology for structuring the model of likelihood of poverty, which accounts for only the demographic profile of a family, its income and expenses, but also possession of long-term use goods and earning assets. The results of this research produced the instrument that can be used by microlenders for objective assessment of the impact of microlending upon the clients’ well-being.  
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