Theoretical and Applied Economics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Theoretical and Applied Economics" > Rubric "Economic theory and history of economic thought"
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Antipov D.A. - Neoliberalism: Global Ideology pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of the research is the neo-liberal model of development as a global ideology. The aim of this work is to determine the ideological principles of neoliberalism implemented in practice in the process of globalization. To achieve these objectives, the author of the article has considered a practical application of the ideas of neo-liberalism in the domestic politics of Greece, Chile and Argentina in the second half of the twentieth century. This approach allows to identify the basic elements of neoliberalism as a social practice at the country level, and to transfer the result to the global level, thereby defining the ideological components of neoliberal globalization. As a result of the study, it was found out that the practical application of the ideas of the neoliberal model in the domestic politics of Greece, Chile and Argentina allowed the supporters and theorists of neoliberalism to talk about its "viability" and "efficiency" without taking into account all the socio-economic consequences of such practices. Often when assessing the effectiveness of the neoliberal economy researchers took into account only undifferentiated GDP which allowed to hide the negative consequences of the practical application of that theory. In turn, the global transformation that occurred in the world at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries (the collapse of the bipolar system and the crisis of the "built socialism"), has allowed neo-liberalism to establish the leading role of the doctrine in the globalization process. Neoliberalism has become a global ideology, ideologeme, the main of which is the "free market" protected from any interference by the state. The idea of non-interference of the state has overcome the boundaries of economics and has spread to all spheres of social existence that allowed neoliberalism to be "the only effective" model of human existence. The consolidation of the status of neo-liberalism as a universal ideology has not led to the withdrawal of the global contradictions of the global development, but only contributed to their deepening because of the lack of variability in the choice of ways of human development. 
Bagrin P.P. - Possibility for Simulation Modeling of Corporate Systems pp. 1-11


Abstract: The object of the present research is the corporate systems. The subject of the present research is the simulation modeling of the corporate systems. The author analyzes various kinds of simulation modeling such as discrete even simulation, system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The author focuses on the agent-based modeling and makes a hypothesis about this type of modeling being suitable for the corporate systems. In his article Bagrin gives the list of conditions under which the agent-based modeling should be applied. The author also describes peculiarities of the corporate systems and participants of corporate relations and compares them to the conditions of application of agent-based models. In order to find the type of modeling that would be suitable for corporate systems, the author has used analysis and deduction as the research methods. By using the analysis method, the author views participants of corporate relations as part of the corporate system. By using the induction method, the author concludes that the agent-based modeling is suitable for the corporate system because it suits elements of the system. As a result of the research, the following conclusions have been made: corporate systems could and should be modeled. However, at this point it is impossible to build the analytical model so simulation models should be used instead. Out of existing simulation models the agent-based models allow to take into account all significant features of corporate systems. Teh scientific novelty of the research is based on the fact that the author proves the suitability of agent-based models for corporate systems. The results of the present research can be used in further researches of the agent-based models of corporate systems. 
Safiullin M.R., Elshin L.A., Abdukaeva A.A. - Particularities of Innovative and Technological Development of Russia as Part of Higher School Development Trends pp. 1-11


Abstract: The object of the research is the innovative and technological development of the national economy within transformations of the higher school. The subject of the research is the mechanisms and  methods of state regulation that form the basis of an efficient, adapted to current economic conditions, innovative and technological development of the national economy. The authors of the article pay special attention to the role of the higher school in teh process of creating advanced manufacturing technologies, define the key issues and development trends that encourage innovative development of the economic system under the conditions of changing environment. Based on the methods of the econometric analysis, the authors analyze the key factors that influence the parameters of the innovative and technological development of Russia including the number of higher education establishments, the number of issued patents, attraction of foreign investments in research and development, funding researches from the federal budget, the number of staff who conduct research and development, the number of establishments that conduct research and development. The main result of the research is the scientifically grounded development tools used by the higher school of Russia that encourage and intensify mechanisms of innovative and technological development of the national economy. The main contribution of the author to the topic is that the author conducts economic mathematical calculations proving the need for Russian Federation universities to cooperate under the conditions of the limited access to foreign investments in national research and development. 
Sverdlikova E.A., Tagibova A. - The Russian Economy and Business Model Compared to Western and East Asian (Confucian) Models pp. 1-19


Abstract: The subejct of this research is the modern models of economy and business that are being implemented in the main developed countries including Russia. The authors of the article focus on the models that are used in Japan, China and other East Asian countries. The Russian model is compared to typical models of the West and East Asia (and contemporary European models in a more detailed way). Particular attention is paid to modern Western concepts. The purpose of the research is to offer a general classification of these models as well as to define their place within a single classification system. The authors have used both general research methods such as systems analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and classification of objects under research, theoretical contextual analysis of existing approaches to the matter) and special social and economic methods (Max Weber's economic business ethos theory, concept of national cultural types, 'three types of capitalism' theory by Esping-Anderson, concept of Welfare State and its types). Noteworthy, that the authors are critical about limited opportunities offered by the corporate culture concept and emphasize the need in a wider approach based on the idea of the importance of natoinal cultural features of each country. The results of the research are given in a form of a classification of the main economy and business models and their particular location on a single classification chart as well as location of economy and business models of the main developed countries of North America, Europe (including Russia) and East Asia thereon. The scope of application for these results may involve both social and economic development of different countries and their relationships as well as prediction of both in a long-term prospect. 
Khorin A.N., Brovkin A.V. - Key indicators of the report on sustainable development of an organization pp. 1-12


Abstract: This article examines the key aspects and indicators of the report on sustainable development of an organization. The work substantiates the need and the purpose for such report, as well as demonstrates its importance for formation of present and future goals of the organization. The importance of presenting such reports is confirmed by the references to its support from the leading global development institutions, including UN. The author determines the parties and groups interested in acquiring this data, and gives thorough analysis of such key indicators applied in the report on sustainable development as: financial, environmental, social, and characteristics of the quality of the corporate management. Special section is dedicated to the integral indexes of the socioeconomic dynamics. Conclusions are made on the purpose and importance if providing the report on sustainable development, which allows better and fuller look at external impact of companyТs activity and long-term prospects of its work.
Payson D. - Peculiarities of application of the category of public good to the analysis of performance and institutional arrangement of space activities pp. 1-20


Abstract: This article examines the fundamental categories of targeted activity, including subjectivity and performance applicable to the modern space activities, as well as discusses the problematic questions of generation public good in the activity of hybrid corporate-public actors. This work is aimed at developing theoretical grounds for institutional projecting and organizational structuring in the area of space activities pertaining to space research and exploration, as well as elaborating alternate versions of organizational design that would ensure efficiency of such efforts with consideration of current institutional trajectory. The methodological base consists primarily of the principle of methodological individualism, viewed from the perspective the impact upon the targeted work of the researchers, explorer, and applied use of space, as well as analysis of results of the work using the value chains. The article also uses the general approaches towards analyzing the inter-sectoral cooperation in economics, as well as the theories of public good. The scientific novelty is defined by the identification of the peculiarities of application of the principles of targeted work by the members of space activities pertaining to state and private sectors; conducted analysis of emergence of specific public good in this sphere; peculiarities of the work of particular corporate-public actors and risks of emergence of institutional traps; proposed versions of organizational arrangement of the tasks of generating public good in the area of space activities. The main conclusion lies in the need for special organizational arrangement of this vector of space activities in terms of the work of hybrid corporate-public actors.
Khorin A.N., Brovkin A.V. - Historical experience of mutual insurance in Russia as a base for development of modern industry non-commercial insurance pp. 12-21


Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the historical scientific-practical experience of mutual insurance in pre-revolution Russia and during the USSR era. Based on the study of a substantial amount of historical and modern publications it is demonstrated that the mutual (non-commercial) insurance was widely used in the Russian Empire. The main objective of this work and its scientific-educational value lies in the increase of knowledge and informing of the broad reader base on the history of mutual insurance as a relevant financial instrument of risk protection. The article demonstrates the role and significance of the mutual insurance in Russia, including its industry application. The authors come to the conclusion that this experience can be successfully applied even today, if supported by the scientific community with regards to informing a broad spectrum of interested parties, development and proliferation of scientific-theoretical and scientific-practical materials dedicated to mutual insurance.
Tsurikov V.I. - Economic approach to the issue of crime rate control. Part 2. The controlling effect of punishment pp. 13-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis and possibilities of the economic approach of Gary Becker towards the crime rate control problem. Special attention is given to the examination of the controlling effect of punishment. For description of the behavior of a criminal neutral towards the risk, the work employs a simple mathematical model of comparison of profit versus loss, which found its implementation in economic approach towards criminal and law enforcement activity. The profit of the criminal is the size of the “score”. The losses of the criminal consist in costs of preparation for the crime, its execution and the subsequent cover-up. Consideration of the possibility of being caught, as well as subsequent punishment of the criminal and the monetary equivalent of punishment, allows acquiring expression for the mathematical expectation of profit for the criminal. Within the framework of economic mathematical model the impact of various factors upon the amount of losses and the controlling effect of punishment are being analyzed. The conclusion is that the controlling effect of the punishment is in direct proportional dependence on the likelihood of punishment, thus in the case with a very low likelihood of punishment (such situation is characteristic for the corruption crimes in modern Russia), the increase in severity of punishment will not result in somewhat noticeable decrease in the number of corresponding crimes.
Moreeva S. - Imbalance in the structure of Russian export: history (since the early XX century) and ways of solving it pp. 20-40


Abstract: The subject of this article (conducted on the basis of the results of research work on the topic "Economic and legal aspects of Russia’s foreign trade activities since the early XX century: past, present, and prospects") is the foreign trade of Russia for the period from the early XX century to the present day. The article analyzes the dynamics of export in value and weight terms (based on the primary statistical data). The author describes the moments of imbalance in commodity structure of the Russian (Soviet) foreign trade during the reporting period. The main conclusion consists in the substantiation of thesis on the imbalance in the structure of the Russian foreign trade based upon the analysis of statistical data. It is demonstrated that at various historical periods, the country always featured a product (or a certain group of products) that accounted for a “lion’s share” in the total export value. Unfortunately, since the beginning of the XX century up to the present, this refers only to the raw materials. The author provides a brief analysis on the existing programs aimed at structural changes in commodity composition of the Russian export.
Balde K.B. - Analysis of Economic Disparities Within the Framework of the European Union Cohesion Policy pp. 21-26


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of regional differences in the European Union. Decentralization processes and the growing need of small but economically significant geographical territories to become more autonomous are typical for modern Europe. The presence of economically weak regions on the one hand and regions with high rates of economic activity on the other hand slows down the pace of society's development in general. The growing need of highly developed regions to become more autonomous or perhaps even independent raises a question whether the cohesion policy is efficient. According to the author, by collecting statistics at the level of Union regions but not specific countries and comparative analysis of their economic indicators would give an opportunity to define differences in the level of economic development and social welfare of the European Union member states. These differences described by the author are often significant and in most cases caused by their geographic location and history. The aforesaid imbalance was analyzed by the author at the level of member states and particular regions. There was no such disproportion at the moment when the EU was formed and consisted of 6 economically strong states. After countries with a lower level of development such as Ireland, Greece, Spain and Portugal had joined the EU, the gap in their economic development widened. For regions that strive to become more autonomous or even independent, not only historical and cultural aspects but also concrete financial motives are important. The majority of regions that declare their desire to become autonomous are the richest regions in their countries with economic indicators that exceed average indicators. 
Lebedev S., Dallakyan A.K. - The Problem of Encouraging Savings in Terms of Discoveries Made in Behavioral and Cognitive Economy pp. 26-36


Abstract: The subject of the research is the saving behavior of economic agents (in this case, population) under limited resources nd uncertain environment. The object of the research is the combination of cognitive and behavioral effects and phenomena that encourage or prevent from savings. These factors can be successfully used to encourage this type of economic behavior, moreover, some of them can be used directly by the government as well as financial institutions (retail banks, etc.). In their research the authors have used traditional economic research methods such as analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and research abstraction. They have also used the method of case study (analysis of particular situations) and others. The researchers focuse on qualitative instead of quantitative analysis. The authors have offered a classification of discovered made in the fields of behavioral and cognitive economy, these discoveries facilitating or preventing from saving behavior of economic agents. The authors also analyze the experience of financial institutions aimed at encouraging saving behavior and developing relevant behavioral patterns (the habit to save money). The authors also offer to adapt a number of instruments that are used in modern marketing. In particular, they analyze savings gamification methods (based on the goal gradient hypothesis) and opportunities to apply the endowment effect through visualisation of the future value in account, etc.  
Grudneva A.A. - The Problems of Small and Medium Businesses Development in the Agricultural Sector pp. 27-39


Abstract: Specific features of today's competitive environment and particularities of corporate strategic management under conditions of ongoing land reforms create the need to improve measures aimed at supporting and developing small and medium businesses in order to increase their competitive ability and production efficiency. The purpose of the research is to study and summarize problems of small and medium businesses in the agricultural sector. Based on that, the author presents and solves the following tasks: analyzes modern conceptual approaches to the development of small and medium businesses in the agricultural sector described in Russian and foreign literature; summarizes gaps and barriers faced by small and medium agricultural enterprises; and analyzes advantages and disadvantages of cluster cooperation in the agricultural sector. In the course of her research Rudneva has used categorical, subject-object, sytems approaches, comparative analysis, synthesis and logical generalization. As a result of the research, the author summarizes problems faced by small and medium agricultural businesses and defines particular measures to support small and medium businesses taking into account their functions performed as part of creating the cost of the final agricultural product. Analysis of current theoretical approaches to raising the efficiency of cooperation processes in the agricultural sector has allowed to summarize and systematize advantages, peculiarities and problems of developing agricultural clusters in Russia as well as to offer a number of measures aimed at development of small and medium business in the agricultural sector. According to the author, recommendations made in the article will allow to improve the process of managing clusterisation processes in the agricultural sector and icnrease efficiency of developed cluster initiatives. The research conclusions can be taken into account when developing measures aimed at supporting small and medium agricultural business enterprises at the regional level as well as evaluating efficiency of these measures. 
Rabkin S.V. - The Views of Dmitry Mendeleev on the Formation of National Development Priorities of Russia: Historical Retrospective and Modern Realities pp. 28-40


Abstract: The object of the research is the conceptual and ideological views of Dmitry  Mendeleev on the formation of the national development priorities of Russia within the framework of implementation of modern models of economic security. This article details the search for a new paradigm of economic science, the development of strategic branches of economy, education system, development of the territory of the Russian Arctic in terms of a historical retrospective of works by Dmitry Mendeleev and the modern realities of the development of the Russian economy. Special attention is paid to the problems of neutralizing modern threats and challenges outlined in a new Strategy of national security of the Russian Federation. Based on the method of historical analogy and methodology of institutional analysis, the author makes a conclusion about the need to rethink the ideas of Dmitry Mendeleev and the implementation of interdisciplinary approach in the development of our own methodological basis of institutional theory and of counterfactual modeling in terms of the historical specificity of Russian economy. One of such directions should be the substantiation of priority development of strategic industry through guaranteeing economic security of the state. A necessary condition for developing modern Russian economy should be a historically conditioned return to the principles of strategy planning. Special attention is paid to the study of the influence of immaterial factors in the development of the system of guarantees of national security and the current trend of institutionalization of criteria for their implementation. The author emphasizes the need for further scientific popularization of the ideas of Dmitry Mendeleyev as a historical basis for the formation of modern national development priorities.
Tsurikov V.I. - Economic approach towards deterrence of crime: Part 3. Anti-corruption strategies in modern Russia pp. 37-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problems of combating corruption crimes in modern Russia. The article analyzes certain measures essential for significant lowering of the current level of corruption, as well as reducing the negative impact of business corruption on the economy and society. The author challenges the popular social views, according to which the successful deterrence of corruption requires severe punitive measures, including death penalty. Special attention is given to the analysis of factors, which lead to the loss of deterrent effect of punishment. The research uses an economic approach towards crimes and penalties. Based on the obtained estimates of the expected penalty for corruption, the author demonstrates that the typical for the Russian law enforcement practice ultralow value of probability of penalty for an offence deprives the penalty of any deterrent effect. The author acquires a quantitative assessment of such threshold value of probability of penalty for corruption, the overcoming of which would allow restoring the deterrent effect of penalty and successfully reduce the number of corresponding offences. It is concluded that even the repeated reduction of the number of corruption offences, accepted by the society as great breakthrough in combating corruption, can be achieved solely by petty corruption. In such case, the total annual volume of bribes will drop by just few percentage points, which reflect in continuous negative impact of corruption on the economy. Therefore, the process of increasing the likelihood of penalty for corruption offences should certainly be accompanied by decisive measures of the government aimed at gradual revocation of the immunity the officials currently possess.
Elshin L.A., Safiullin M.R., Abdukaeva A.A. - Development of the methodology of assessment of the economic growth of the regional economic systems on the basis of unified system of factors (on the example of the Volga Federal District) pp. 39-52


Abstract: Development of the forecasting models of economic growth, their improvement and adaptation to the transforming conditions of the institutional factors, require constant refinement of the methodological instruments. The key task here is the search for such system of factors that would simultaneously clarify the correction in the trends of economic dynamics and be unified for the entirety of the regional systems, which creates possibility for comparative analysis of the drivers of the economic growth. The object of this research is the unified factors of the economic growth of the Volga Federal District. The subject of this research is the modeling system of the parameters of economic dynamics on the basis of identification of exogenous factors unified for all regional systems. As a result of the conducted assessments, based on the instruments of econometric modeling, the authors determine the models of economic growth of the Volga Federal District based on uniformity of factors, which allowed, using the methods of cluster analysis, grouping them in accordance with the level of response and sensitivity to the changing parameters of the analyzed macro-indicators.
Alekseev N.E. - Alternative Concept to Overcome the Crisis pp. 41-47


Abstract: The subject of the research is the concept of collaborative consumption which is a kind of alternative to the present concept of individual consumption. The object of the research is a contemporary economic system characterized by a decrease in volumes of production and consumption of goods, the fall in real income in the consumer sector, the decline in purchasing power, inflation and unemployment. Special attention is paid to the idea that in the modern world the concept of increasing consumption is no longer the driving force of development of society and the whole philosophy of the future is also undergoing change. On the one hand, growing economic crisis leads to the transformation of patterns of consumption, from individual models to the model of collaborative consumption, thereby reducing consumption and transforming its structure. On the other hand, the recognition of the model of collaborative consumption deprives the economy of one of the directions of overcoming the crisis – the growth of volumes of consumption, reduction of unemployment, increase and acceleration of financial flows. The author comes to the conclusion that one of the effective means of combating global financial and economic crisis and a worthy alternative to individual consumption may be an adaption model of collaborative consumption. This model is based on the paradigm shift of social development (the growing dominance of the network structure of social life), transformation of the structure of needs of the population (from rigid hierarchical structures to flexible but atomistic market structure and finally a network form interaction coordination) characterized by the lack of ownership of the used good.
Tsurikov V.I. - Economic Perspective of the Crime Control. Part 1 pp. 41-54


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis and applicability of Gary Becker's economic approach to crime control. In his research Tsurikov opposes to the idea of individual's rational behavior being purely egoistic in the common sense thereof. According to the author, interpreting  maximizing behavior as self-interested can make us to deny the economic approach and, consequently, impede efficient application of the economic approach to describing and analyzing various social phenomena and processes. By using a rather simple mathematical example, the author illustrates how application of arguments that describe emotional states of other individuals to the utility function of a rational economic agent allows to present such economic agent not only as a heartless egoist but also as a man-hater or absolute altruist. Special attention is paid to the ideas of Gary Becker's predecessors, in particular, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. Detailed analysis is applied to a surprising similarity of conclusions regarding crime control that can be made on the basis of the economic approach and concept of a sociologist Émile Durkheim. While the economic approach proves that it is impossible to completely eliminate crime and that there is an optimal crime rate, social science presented by one of its founders postulates that every society has a normal and even 'useful' crime rate. Both approaches state that not all crimes must be solved and, therefore, some part of criminals should be left unpunished. 
Melnikov Y.B., Onokhina E.A., Shitikov S.A. - Bottom-up and top-down analysis as a strategic component of management decisionmaking pp. 41-49


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of creating a work plan using the methods of bottom-up and top-down analysis. The authors based upon the hypothesis that every point of planning by the executive and planner is perceived either as a reference to a known algorithm of actions, or as a goal setting for work without concretization of means of achieving it. The goal is being viewed as a system of example models of results meant for planning and assessment of adequacy of results, both planned and achieved. The research carries a theoretical character and employs results of research in the area of management, modeling theory of Y. B. Melnikov, which is based on formal-constructive interpretation of the model and analysis of management decisionmaking process. Authors examine the process of transformation of the original plan, consisting of a single point (formulation of goal), towards a plan of which all main points are perceived by the executive as references to known to him algorithms of actions. The authors’ original interpretation of the methods of bottom-up and top-down analysis is schematically illustrated by the examples from the taxation practice.
Dmitrieva N.V., Gabinskaya O.S. - Internal independent assessment of the quality of higher education: necessity, types and instruments pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the independent assessment of education quality. The issue is that the Law on Education determines such assessment as external, which creates certain difficulties of its implementation namely in the sphere of higher education. At the same time, the government recommends the educational organizations to form the mechanisms of internal independent assessment of education quality. The conducted in 2017 nationwide monitoring of the methods of internal assessment demonstrated that only 19% of universities have internal local documents for regulating such assessment. The authors classify the types of internal independent assessment of education quality according to its object, character, forms of results representation, and level experts’ participation. The article describes the specific assessment tools, as well as provides the general regulation of internal assessment. The conclusion is made on its key features, factors of efficiency, and relation to external assessment.
Moroshkina M.V. - Interregional differentiation of the Russian regions: problem of convergence and divergence pp. 48-60


Abstract: This research includes carrying out the analysis and an assessment of regional inequality of social and economic development of Russia. The special attention is paid to the period of transformation of the economic system. The author in meticulously considers such aspects as definition of influence of structural changes in the economy on the level of regional development. The main objective of this research is to analyze the interregional differentiation of the Russian regions, and examine the tendencies and prospects of their convergence. The object of this research are regions of the Russian Federation, which have different economic potential and are respectively characterized by various level of regional development. The subject of this research is differentiation of social and economic development of these territories. In course of this research, the methods and tools used when modeling σ – convergences and β-convergences were applied. Within the analysis of dynamics of interregional distinctions of the Russian regions on GRP indicator per capita, the main indicator is considered in the current and comparable prices. Scientific novelty lies in the research and comparison of the economic indicators characterizing territorial development. The carried-out analysis of signs of convergence of regions has revealed unequal tendencies of indicators of GRP per capita in the current and comparable prices, as well as other economic indicators. The GRP in the current prices within the considered period shows a tendency to alignment of levels of economic development. The analysis of dynamics of GRP per capita in the comparable prices doesn't confirm this tendency. However, in both cases it is possible to speak about lack of divergence (the accruing divergence), i.e. interregional distinctions have not increased over the last twenty years.
Tsurikov V.I. - Incomplete Contraction in Terms of Russian Specifics. Part 2. The Influence of Transactional Expenses and Credibility Gap pp. 48-61


Abstract: The subject of the research is the influence of transactional expenses on agents' investment decisions, volume of aggregate profit and individual benefits. The author demonstrates that additional investments are necessary to overcome inefficient balance created as a result of agents' independent choice of investment volumes s well as to obtain additional benefits. Due to the fact that coordination of any kind results in transactional expenses, the author also analyzes the relation between coordination methods and associated profit and expense balances. The research method is the mathematical modelling. Within the framework of researching an incomplete contract model, the author carries out analysis and comparison of transactional expenses associated with coordination at hybrid and hierarchical forms of economic organisation. The author discovers conditiosn for achieving maximum benefit for both overly low and selectable levels of coordination expenses. The author also demonstrates that a hybrid form of organisation may have an excessively high level of coordination expenses when additional investments do not lead to the growth of aggregate profit. Thus, a high level of resources specificity or/and great volumes of investment combined with a low social capital may create a high level of coordination expenses which may act as an invincible obstacle on the way to overcoming an inefficient balance at hybrid organisations. Hierarchical organisations do not have such a level of coordination expenses. In this research the author has used the verbal method of describing results obtained through mathematical modelling.
Taskaeva M.P. - Problems of the development of rural territories in Zabaykalsky Krai pp. 49-56


Abstract: This article reviews various approaches towards the definition of “rural territory”, as well as describes problems of the development of rural territories in Zabaykalsky Krai. Analyzing the multiple definitions of the term “rural territory”, the author concludes that its includes such aspects as the territorial boundaries, availability of cheap workforce, supplier of agricultural raw materials, responsibility of local authorities for the quality of life in the region. The author believes that the variety of approaches alongside the absence of legislative recognition of the definition of “rural territory” is a stumbling block in the activity of governing bodies and advancement of economic, social, environmental, and other activity spheres of rural territories. Leaning on the statistical and sociological results, the author analyzes the dynamics of social wellbeing indicators of the rural population of Zabaykalsky Krai: wages and incomes, social structure, state of social infrastructure. Generalizing the national and foreign experience, the author notes that the priority vector of state policy is the set of measures on incentivizing food production, ensuring food security in the border region, creation of the diversified and multi-structured rural economy. Controversial is the question of the criteria, indicators, and threats to security allowing to assess potential of the region within the framework of the monitoring of food security with consideration of regional peculiarities.  
Ubushiev E. - Macroeconomic Policy: Comparative Analysis of Development Strategies pp. 55-69


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of three strategies of economic development from the point of view of macroeconomics: Russia's Development Strategy 2018 - 2024 prepared by the Center for Strategic Research headed by A. Kudrin, Medium Term Program of Russia's Social and Economic Development 2025 (Growth Strategy) developed by Stolypin Institute for Economic Growth and Principles of Russia's Economic Development Strategy 2025 created by specialists of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation. In his research Ubushiev analyzes how views on the need in state regulation of economy have been developing as well as defines the main directions of the macroeconomic policy. To define the main trends of the macroeconomic policy, the author has analyzed the stabilization macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic policy of long-term growth encouragement as well as has described the main functions of economic policy. In his research the author has used general research methods such as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and comparative analysis. The result of the research is the author's conclusion that the aforesaid programs are based on various theoretical concepts and it would be useful to implement measures offered by the members of the Stolypin Club and Chamber of Commerce and Industry. According to the author, the Stolypin Club and Chamber of Commerce and Industry offer strategies that contain a number of vital activities to overcome economic recession in Russia. 
Gureev K.A., Gureeva E.G. - Assessment of the level of skills in the normalization of the work of experts in the intellectual professions in the business process management pp. 57-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the assessment of the skill level of workers in the intellectual professions using integrated assessment technologies, the distinguishing feature of which can be defined as the possibility of aggregating an unlimited number of heterogeneous factors significant for the employer. The main problem is described by the absence of a unified system for assessing the level of qualification with an "exit" to a complex coefficient, used for further normalization of labor and the definition of norms. The urgency of this issue is primarily defined by the problem that has arisen in practice – lack of the possibility of an adequate comparison of the level of complexity of the work performed by the specialists. The authors consider in detail the possibilities of applying modern mathematical tools for the purpose of forming a single coefficient that reflects the level of qualifications of employees. A lot of attention is paid to the issues of system flexibility and the possibilities of its adaptation for the activity of enterprises in various economic spheres. The proposed system is based on modern technology of integrated assessment, based on tree criteria and folding matrices. Advantages of the application of this system can determine the ability to take into account the inorganic number of factors in assessing the level of qualifications, as well as the formation of a single assessment, which allows comparing and ranking the staffing. An undeniable and significant advantage is the addition of the system with the "Active Expertise" tool, which allows the implementation of expert assessments while reducing the degree of manipulation with the result of individual experts. The novelty of the work is determined by the use of the specified tools, technologies and algorithms in the sphere, where previously it was not found. At the same time, the management of the staff of intellectual workers has a separate significance, since it is very problematic to normalize the number of employees in this category. The use of the aggregate assessment integrated into the work-time evaluation systems, in conjunction with the system for assessing the complexity of the work, makes it possible to compare the available volumes with the assessment of the level of labor and the required employment. This material is a logical continuation of methodological developments related to the assessment of the complexity of work and the definition of labor for their implementation. It is noteworthy that for the purposes of correlating the models of assessing the complexity of work and the skills of specialists, similar methods and tools are used, which makes it possible to further emphasize the justification of the technologies used.
Eremenko E.A. - Evolution of the concept of justice in economic science of the late XX century pp. 61-69


Abstract: The subject of this research is the development of the concept of justice in economic science at the time of emergence of the modern theories of justice. The object of this research is the leading philosophical concepts that became the foundation for determination of the notion of justice in economic science at the current stage of its development. The goal of theoretical analysis lies in identification of peculiarities in evolution of the notion of justice under the influence of liberal philosophical view. Special attention is given to examination of John Rawls’ concept of justice as the most reputable of all modern theories. In the course of this work, the author applies the methodology of scientific theoretical study, with the use of systemic approach. A conclusion is made that the substantial influence upon the perception of justice was brought by the socioeconomic and political factors of the existence of society; and the achievement of justice in economic sphere is possible only when the merest change in wellbeing of one individual does not diminish wellbeing of another while maintaining the moral-ethnical grounds of the society.
Skvortsova N.A., Lebedeva O.A. - Market Orientation of Companies: Stating the Problem, Research and Prospects pp. 62-74


Abstract: The subject of the research is the trends and patterns of market development. The authors examine such aspects of the topic as the mechanisms and rules of market functioning. The object of the research is specific stages of the evolutionary approach of marketing influence on the market. Special attention is paid to the main stages of the evolutionary approach to marketing influence on the market. The research is focused on moving markets. The authors also describe limiting instruments of strategic marketing that do not allow companies performing in the territory of Russia to maintain international partnerships. The methodology and methodological basis of the research involves such research methods as analysis, synthesis, abstraction, systems approach and comparative analysis that allow to study the market and companies from the point of view of their constant development and interaction. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author provides integral grounds for transferring to international partnership marketing as a fundamental shift to combining mutual efforts of owners, management and personnel of companies in order to achieve a higher level of commitment and coordination of actions in order to raise consumer values. The main conclusion of the research is the authors providing explanation and grounds for market orientation adapated to Russian business environment.
Degtyarev A.N., Novikov V.A. - Methodology of approaches towards examination of institutional grounds of interaction between the subjects of regional innovation system pp. 65-76


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the questions of institutional maintenance of the efficient development of innovation systems at the regional level. Using the foreign and national experience, the authors analyze the diverse scientific approaches towards definition of the concepts of “national innovation system” and “regional innovation system”. It is substantiated that due to various reasons of political, economic, and infrastructure character, within the framework of the regional innovation system often emerge the institutional disruptions that impede the efficient flow of innovation processes, which negatively affects the dynamics of socioeconomic development of the territory. The notion of “technological institutions of development” is introduced into the scientific discourse. The authors justify the establishment not only of the financial, but also technological institutions of development in the regions that can perform compensatory function in the innovation process, filling the gaps within the institutional environment of innovations that at the present stage of regional development cannot be eliminated by the virtue of market mechanisms. The authors emphasize the relevance of creating the technological institutions of development for realization of the stages of engineering and experimental developments as the most problematic from the perspective of financial and organizational-economic support. The work suggests the strategic trend of institutional modernization of the regional innovation system, that will lead do establishment of the system of complementary cooperating institutions that ensure and support the continues innovation-technological process in the region.  
Doroshenko M.V., Isupova O.A. - Approach to management of counteraction of external threats and challenges on the basis of standard management pp. 66-74


Abstract: This article considers the approach to management of counteraction of external threats and challenges on the basis of standard management. Under the standard management the authors imply the formation of the system of management based on application of managerial standards. The approach to corporate management using the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is examined. The new version of the standard (2015) recommends the formation of risk-oriented approach that, along with the other objectives, allows ensuring management of external threats and challenges. It is demonstrated that the management tool for external threats and challenges, in line with the requirements and terms of the indicated standards, can become the creation of the system of risk management in accordance with the risk-oriented managerial mindset. Such system as a part of the system of quality control system of an organization includes the components, functions, and stages recommended by the ISO new generation standard. The authors review the experience in application of such approach by the machine-building enterprises; generalize feasibility of the originally developed documentation of risk analysis for the more efficient process management on the basis of risk management. It is concluded that such approach can be implemented in virtually any organization in the conditions of the standard management.  
Martyshenko N.S. - Analysis of the problems of Catering University Students: Socio-Economic Aspects pp. 70-89


Abstract: Nutrition is an essential component of students' health. In recent years, there has been a steady trend of deterioration in the nutrition structure of students, which is confirmed by numerous publications on this topic. The main purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of eating behavior of students in universities of Primorsky Krai. The basis of the research is the questionnaire survey of students of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service. A dangerous trend in the consumption of fast food by students has been revealed. The difference between the method of questioning used is the wide use of open questions, for processing of which the original technologies for analyzing qualitative data were used. During the processing of survey data, a number of typologies were developed that revealed the characteristics of the eating behavior of students. The structure of the food ration has been determined and the estimates of the food costs for various groups of students have been calculated. Particular attention in the article is given to the analysis of students' proposals for improving the work of catering points of the university. Some recommendations on the improvement of the university nutrition system are formulated.
Goncharenko L.P., Voronova T.A., Sybachin S.A., Sharko E.R. - Implementation of innovative production technologies in Russian lumber yards pp. 70-87


Abstract: This article describes the research results on the role of wood processing industry in Russia’s Economic Security Strategy. The authors prove the importance of performance criteria of this industry, as it currently experiences the following innovative changes: improvement of processing technology; expansion of the use of raw materials and final products; formation of the new assessment methods of the effectiveness of investments in this area, considering risks, which allows the investors to make decisions on capitalization of their financial resources in wood processing. Over a long period of rime, high prices on natural resources did not stimulate the development of high-tech industries. The subject of this research is the innovative methods and means as the investment objects of wood processing industry. Methodological and theoretical foundation contains the works of the Russian scholars in exploring the wood processing industry, its marketing, management and logistics. The suggested method of risk assessment in decisions-making on funding the innovation-investment projects allows solving multiple issues associated with managing the spatial-economic development of natural resources of the particular territories, as well as substantiate the placement of economic structures in the regions for socioeconomic development. However, the risk factors for wood processing industry that affect the optimal functioning and development of the markets, considering the specificity of certain forest zones, remain insufficiently studied. As a result, the proposed methodology will be able to improve the state of the industry in the overall volume of export for achieving the strategic indexes of Russia’ economic security in the long-term perspective.
Mironov D.S. - Institutional problems of regulation and support in the area of development of industrial parks of the Sverdlovsk Region pp. 75-89


Abstract: This article examines the questions of state regulation and support of industrial parks as the growth drivers of regional industry. In the Sverdlovsk Region, due to the unresolved institutional-transformational and infrastructural problems, the industrial parks did not receive proper development; therefore, this topic gains special relevance. The author explores the following issues regarding the regulatory function of state institution in development of industrial parks: 1) deformation and ambiguity of institutional conditions, absence of regional legal and methodological framework for the development of cluster enterprises; 2) use of evaluation technique of the effect rather than effectiveness of tax preferences; 3) disjoint regulation of the activity of park structures by several ministries, etc. The goal of this research lies in determination and analysis of the functional problems of state institution in the area of regulation and support of innovative economic development of the industrial parks of Sverdlovsk Region, as well as formulation of recommendations on their improvement. As a practical solution, the author suggests to create the regional program for strategic development of industrial clusters; apply evaluation technique of the effectiveness of subsidies that is based on commensuration of the effect and costs, and implies the account of changes of wide variety of economic indexes; demarcate the authority for regulating the activity of industrial parks among the ministries; as well as makes recommendations on solution of the tasks on regional strategic development.
Zavrazhskii A.V. - Features of Risk Classification of Medical Organizations pp. 90-105


Abstract: The object of the present research is the activities of Russian medical organizations on risk management arising in the course of their work. The subject of the research is theoretical and practical approaches to identifying and classifying the risks of medical organizations. Despite all the social importance of their work, Russian medical institutions still face a large list of dangers. Most medical organizations remain state-owned, which means that the government should start an initiative to apply the principles of risk management in the medical field. However, in the scientific literature one of the most important aspects of effective risk management remains understudied, in particular, there is no their classification taking into account the specificity of the industry. In his research Zavrazhsky has used the analytical analysis of scientific and statistical data sources, as well as graphical and mathematical methods for the calculation of quantitative indicators. Based on the results of the research, the author makes a conclusion that the system of Russian health care does not not a comprehensive approach to risk management, activities of the organizations of this sector is continuously subjected to threats caused by external and internal factors, and one of the most important stages of building an effective health risk management system should be the proper classification of risks. The author's contribution to the research of the topic is that he offers his own classification of risks of medical organizations. Based on the reviewed scientific and statistical data, it is shown that risk management in health care should take into account not only specific risks of medical nature, but also common economic, social and legal risks experienced by any legal entity.
Elshin L.A., Prygunova M.I. - Expectations and Their Influence on Parameters of Economic Cyclic Development pp. 94-102


Abstract: The subject of the research is the combinatin of factors defining parameters of expectations of economic agents generating, first of all, phase shifts of economic cycles. The authors examine the structure of factors of the institutional and conjunctural order, and their influence on priority development cycles representing trends of short-, medium- and long-term expectations of economic entities. Special attention is paid to the questions of evaluating the influence of the aforesaid set of factors on the horizons of phase shifts inside economic cycles (based on the example of the Russian Federation economy). The given rsearch is based on the implementation of taxonomic analysis methods which most of all create the credibility of assessment. Results of the analysis allow to define the nature of the cyclic development of the Russian Federation economy in 1996 - 2015 with a preceding lag indicator of 1-2 years which allows to develop an important prognostic potential of the model and to predict turning points of each cycle depending on the contents of factors and sizes of their lag indic ators. 
Papava V. - Some Controversial Issues about the Theory of Production Factors pp. 106-118


Abstract: The subject of the research is the theory of production factors that are generally disputed because of their contradictory character. The resolution of this controversial issue is of paramount value for the integrity of the theory of production factors in the context of rethinking economics as one of the most topical points within the modern economic science. The author of the article examines such aspect of the production factors theory as the integrity. Based on that, the author touches upon two questions. First of all, it is the question whether information is an independent production factor and if it is, then what the factor payment of information is. The other question is why economic ability of a state should be viewed as an individual production factor and indirect business taxes should be considered to be the factor payment there of. The research methods used by the author include general logical research methods such as abstraction, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and analogy. The author has also used the method of theoretical analysis. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offers proof as to why information cannot be a production factor. The results of the research demonstrate that the growth of the influence of information on production processes is insufficient for recognizing it as a production factor. The point of view according to which indirect business taxes are unearned income for the government, contradicts the integrity of the theory of production factors. The author of the article also provides theoretical justification that these taxes are a factor payment to the government’s economic ability which in return is a separate production factor. Results of the research create new opportunities for reconsidering some aspects of economics.
Tsurikov V.I. - Incomplete Contraction Under the Conditions of Russian Specific Features. Part 1. The Problems of Weak Protectability of Property Rights pp. 120-129


Abstract: Object of research is influence of weak security of the property rights to investment decisions of agents and on the size of public wealth. In the conditions of insufficient security of the property rights and the contract law agents, in addition to investment into increase in a comprehensive income, perform additional investments into post-contractual redistribution of negotiation force. In article influence of need of private protection of the property rights or temptation for their redistribution in own favor at investment choice of agents and, respectively, at a size of cumulative usefulness is analyzed. The method of a research consists in mathematical modeling. Within model of the incomplete contract the analysis of behavior of partners in the modes reliably and unreliably protected property rights is carried out. In the conditions of poorly protected rights cases of limited and unrestricted resources which agents have are considered. It is shown that in both cases need of protection of the rights to a comprehensive income turns into decrease in incentives for investment into increase in the income that negatively affects the size of cumulative usefulness. In case of limited resources in respect of creation of additional value the agent yields more effective with other things being equal to less effective agent in that amount of investments which go to redistribution of the rights to the income. The advantage in poskontraktny redistribution of the rights is got by richer and/or less effective agents. The conclusion that less effective and richest owners can be interested in a situation in case of which the property rights and the contract law are protected insufficiently reliably is drawn. In article only the verbal method of a statement of the received results is used.
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