Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 09/2018
Contents of Issue № 09/2018
Philosophy of language and communication
Saenko A.V. - Specificity of the notions of the language of philosophy according to G. Deleuze, F. Guattari and M. K. Mamardashvili pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article examines the views of G. Deleuze, F. Guattari and M. K. Mamardashvili upon philosophical language and its components. The author analyzes the classification of texts into direct (analytical) and indirect (predicatory) proposed by the Soviet thinker. The famous philosophical works of various stylistics are brought as an example. Special attention is given to the views of Mamardashvili ipin the philosophical notions that he calls “marginal subjects” or “marginal representations”, as well as the views of Deleuze and Guattari upon the philosophical concepts that they call the “concepts”. The article establishes connection between the diverse classifications and opinions upon the specificity of philosophical notions and texts, and ascertains the importance of contribution made by Mamardashvili, Deleuze and Guattari to methodology of the study of philosophical language. Leaning on the material of Mamardashvili’s lecture on the modern European philosophy, the author underlines the specificity of contribution of the Soviet thinker to the development of methodology of the analysis of philosophical language.
Question at hand
Nekrasov S.N. - Qualitative criteria in philosophical and social sciences: human problem and the fifth world theory pp. 11-26


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical and social sciences in Russia and their decline in the conditions of Marxist dogmatism, bureaucratic idealism and shift in social formation. The subject of this research is the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences and the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of the human in history. The author carefully reviews the vanishing of nonscientific terminological problematic of anthropology, theory of personality and humanization of social relations; however, special attention is given to such process of knowledge reproduction, within which in light of the integral fifth world theory this terminology becomes scientific. One of the research methods is the detection of structuralistic project of refusal from studying a human and the emergence of post-structuralistic Marxism. The other method is associated with the formation of the fifth world theory of civilizational neo-industrialism. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the formation of theory and practice of civilizational neo-industrialism suggests no the refusal from applying the concept of human, but rather the transition towards development of the connection between social relations and real people. Special contribution to this research is the substantiation of the need for reviving the values of Russian philosophy and social science for turning the situation in science. The scientific novelty consists in raising a question about the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences, which implies the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of human in people’s environment, as well as substantiation of civilizing mission of neo-industrialism, which demonstrates the exhaustiveness of capitalism and completeness of the second attempt of building socialism.
Methodology of philosophical learning
Gizha A.V. - Categorical modeling of the essential as a continuous reconstruction of existence pp. 27-37


Abstract: This article examines the conceptual structure of the process of generalizes rationalistic cognition. The two main levels are highlighted: formalizes, mathematically modeled; and open, which is only partially formalized. Philosophical rationality refers to the second level. Such approach allows determining the corresponding to these levels forms of reasoning, as well as the specificities of their actualization. The need for their essential demarcation derives from the fact that each form of reasoning is infinite and self-sufficient in itself, and thus possesses an immanent tendency to extrapolation, which is able to disturb their standard functioning. The main conclusions consist in the statements that the highlighted methods of interpretation and establishment of the truth have a fairly particular applicability. The first level of reasoning is aimed at clarification of regularities and causal connections, which are actually the natural scientific studies. The second one pertains to the problems of open and complex systems – society, history, human, and culture. The peculiarity of reasoning in a non-natural spheres is expressed in the factors of nonlinearity and anticipation. In such case. The subject is capable of escaping the sphere of repressive-compulsory effect of the various types of determinations and shift from the prehistory to the accrual form of historical development. Philosophical categories whereas are viewed as the modeling cognitive-existential structures being in the state of dialogical establishment.
History of ideas and teachings
Fedotova N.G. - Karl Marx’s “Capital” in the context of the theory of symbolic capital pp. 38-44


Abstract: One of the trends of modern society is the economism, characterized by the dominance of economic categories that help to gauge and asses the multiform practices. Thus, the modern scientific discourse experiences the pinnacle of popularity of the various “capitals”, particularly symbolic capital, which importance lies in its capability to affect the processes of reality structuring through trust, reputation, prestige, and recognition of someone or something. However, the scientific potential of the theory of symbolic capital that attains new traits is yet to be fully apprehended, which complicates the development of new vectors of research. Due to this fact the subject of this study is the conceptual analysis of the term “capital” and key features revealing its essence, which for the first time were discovered and explained by Karl Marx in his famous work “Capital. Criticism of Political Economy”, as well as their correlation with the theory of symbolic capital. Using the need for theoretical reflection of the essential properties of symbolic capital, the author conducts a comparative analysis of the two concepts: Marxist positions on capital and the modern theory of symbolic capital, founded by Pierre Bourdieu. As a result, the author discovers the four main properties of capital that not only comprise the theoretical basis of the theory of symbolic capital, but also attain the strategic importance in the applied dimension of the claimed problem. The researchers face the prospect of studying the vectors of the use (generating, accumulation, strategic design and development) of symbolic capital for benefit of certain holders – organization, countries, spheres, people, and territories.  
Value and truth
Kletskin M.V. - Hermeneutics of Aristotle as onto-logics pp. 45-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the hermeneutics of Aristotle and apprehension of the place of modal logics within the structure of fundamental ontology. The author determines the difficulties and contradictions that faces the interpretation of Aristotle’s concept of the logics of nature, analyzes the correlation between the modal categories of “necessity”, “opportunity”, “truth”, and “reality”, as well as suggests the praxeological model of their unification. The reality implies materialization and necessity, but necessary is not always true, as it can also mean something compulsory outside the actual existence. It is also stated that without the temporal characteristics of the modality of existence are irrelevant, as the veracity of modal reasoning about anything is always viewed in present “as it is”. The author comes to a conclusion that the truth reveals the essential as valuable and always from the value (practical) perspective. Having analyzed the foundations of the modern analytical philosophy, the article demonstrates that the representations of logicians are defined by their ontological orientations. If in “Hermeneutics” Aristotle spoke about the existence as a whole, the logicians-analytics imply the existence of a particular sensual thing, i.e. the actual being, which narrows down the area of application of their “modal” logics.
Philosophy of religion
Zhirtueva N. - The problem of integrity and unity of being in philosophical and mystical traditions of the world pp. 57-67


Abstract: The problem of integrity has always been one of the most relevant for the philosophical thought. It has multiple dimensions – ontological, gnoseological, social, and others. The subject of this research is the diversity of methods for solving the problems of unity and integrity of being in philosophical and mystical teachings, which in this article are divided in two types – immanent and transcendent-immanent. The common for both is the orientation towards the overcoming of subjective-objective attitude towards the world. Experiencing unity with the world, human gradually dispenses of contradictions and restores the integrity of personality. Based on the conducted research, the author comes to a conclusion that the immanent mysticism suggests several ways of achieving the goal: acknowledgement of coessentiality of the ideal and material; annihilation of representations on duality of ideal and material; and recognizing material as false reality. The transcendent-immanent mysticism does not eliminate the differences between the Creator and a creature, does not make them coessential or connatural. What happens is the integration of elements into a coherent whole, in which the elements preserve their individuality. The main method for achieving the global unity is love that overcomes both, the external and internal split. Human combines in himself combine creation and non-creation, and within the global scale, takes place the reunion of the entire humanity.
Philosophical anthropology
Merzlyakov S.S. - The limits of imagination: to the question of creative maximum pp. 68-81


Abstract:  This article examines the process of creation of metaphysical system in the context of influence of the ideal object upon human behavior. Attention is focused on the fact that the key element of the establishment of speculative system is the modeling function of consciousness, or in other words – imagination. The author studies the mechanism if intense work of imagination, causes and effects of its functionality, as well as possible correlation of the response to imaginary object with the “hard problem of consciousness” and the problem of influence of the subjective emotional experiences upon human behavior. Using the example of establishment of speculative system, the article demonstrates the mechanism of intense work of the modeling function of consciousness. The texts of Nietzsche and Hume underline that metaphysics is a result of the intense work of the modeling function in the conditions of insolvable contradictions. It is concluded that the mechanism of intense work of imagination is launched without the evident biologically justified reasons and leads to negative for the body consequences. Mowing towards the direction that assigns the study of this mechanism allows discovering the important elements of a puzzle, which is the nature of subjective experience, as well as find the possible solutions of the “hard problem of consciousness”.  
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