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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 09/2019
Contents of Issue є 09/2019
Issues of war and peace
Kryukova G.M. - Youth radiobroadcasts during the Great Patriotic War (on the example of Bashkir ASSR) pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30616

Abstract: This article analyzes the youth radiobroadcasting in the Bashkir ASSR during the Great Patriotic War. The subjects of this research is the analysis of the mechanism of implementation of youth radiobroadcasting in the Bashkir ASSR during the time of war. The goal lies in the attempt to reveal the preparation processes of youth radiobroadcasts and their specificity in the context of Bashkir ASSR in the time of war. Due to severe cut in the issuing of periodicals, radiobroadcasting has become the efficient means for providing information to the public. First releases of the youth radiobroadcasts were characterized by vague delivery of information, with prevalence of mainstream topics, and the rare sociopolitical programs diverged from the political-patriotic vector set by the government. Research methodology is based on the fundamental principles of objectivity and historicism. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival materials allowed depicting the principle of arranging the youth radio show during the time of Great Patriotic War. In order to prepare the program, radio correspondents were constantly searching and testing the new communicative models oriented towards the targeted audience. The children who distinguished themselves on the labor front were invited for participation in the radio shows to share their experience with the agemates. Radiobroadcasts of the 1942-1945 catered the interests of the rising generation to a greater degree, as well as corresponded with the trends of labor and political education. The ideological components of radio programs contributed to integration of the underage into the youth organizations. The conclusion is made on reasonableness of implementation of radio propaganda during the period of social disturbances.
History and Economics
Mikheev M.V., P'yankov S.A., Simonov M.A., Tyushnyakov S.M. - Postwar industrial development of the Ural Region as reflected by statistics (1945-1955) pp. 8-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30664

Abstract: The subject of this research is the implementation of the regional economic policy of USSR with regards to the industrial Ural in 1945-1955. Based on the records on industrial output and transport statistics, the article examines the peculiarities of postwar development of the Ural industry, describes the industrial growth rates. Determines the structural changes in production during the first postwar decade. The relevance of the study is substantiated by the more profound understanding of the transformation process of industrial production of Ural Region after the end of the Great Patriotic War. Systematization and analysis of statistical data allow concretizing the existing historical-economic knowledge on the efficiency of postwar economic policy in USSR. Statistical method of collation and grouping help systematizing the quantitative data on the industrial growth rates, determined the development trends of Ural industry, as well as demonstrate changes in the structure of production. The use of descriptive method allows characterizing the transformations in the industrial development. Historical-genetic method reveals the factors of disproportions in economic development. Historical-systemic method views the process of implementation of economic policy in the Ural Region comprising its industries as a whole, as well as in broad ties and relationships with the neighboring territories.  The scientific novelty lies in conducting a special scientific research dedicated to postwar industrial development of the Ural Region involving the previously unused archival documents. The conclusion is made that the plans on creation a “closed cycle” production in Ural were not implemented to full extent. Despite the significant success of industry and high growth rates of gross figures, the economic development in the region retained substantial disproportions of development.
History of law and state
Vasilyeva E. - On the path of democratization: project of the cadet G. K. Guins on reform of the system of government in Siberia and rule of A. V. Kolchak pp. 24-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.29081

Abstract: The subject of this research is the system of views of the prominent political leader of the period of Civil War, constitutional democrat G. K. Guins upon the nature of the political regime of A. V. Kolchak and ways to reform it.  The goal consists in formulation of concept of democratization of the system of government established in Siberia in November 1918, based on the synthesis of assessments, propositions and remarks of the cadet. The project of G. K. Guins is unique for its integrity and is structured on the basis of profound analysis of the formed situation in the East of Russia. The author explores the essence of Kolchak’s regime and prerequisites for its reform; gives assessment to the proposal of rightwing and leftwing constitutional democrats of Siberia; as well as reveals the content of the project of G. K. Guins. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this article is first in Russian historiography considers the system of views of G. K. Guins upon the nature of Kolchak’s regime and ways to reform it an independent subject of research. The conclusion is made that G. K, Guin’s propositions on consolidation of power in the East of Russia during the rule of A. V. Kolchak were aimed at democratization of the established after the coup of November 18, 1918 regime, and suggested the creation of law-advisory council called to ensure business cooperation between the opposition, population and government.
Sumenkov S., Sumenkova M. - Efficiency of the concept of state policy for prevention alcoholism among population of the Russian Federation: historical-legal analysis pp. 32-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30804

Abstract:  The goal of this research is to analyze the efficiency of state regulation of the production and consumption of alcohol in Russian since the end of the XIX century until present, as well as develop practical recommendations aimed at the improvement of anti-alcohol policy. The relevance of this work is defined by the variety of interests and needs of people, impossibility of their total isolation from it, as well as the balance between the financial profit of the producers of alcohol beverages and government’s concern for public health. The object of this research is the social relations emerged on the basis of production and consumption of alcohol. Dialectical materialism was selected as the basic research method for more in-depth understanding of the essence and designation of legal regulation of alcohol consumption founded on rationalization of the presence of alcohol in different spheres of people’s life. Alcohol consumption and fight against alcoholism are the coexisting in unity and battle opposites, inseparable, but simultaneously mutually cancelling and intertwined phenomena. The use of statistical method allows correlating the quantitative and qualitative impact of alcohol consumption with the demographic situation. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of the problem on the efficiency of measures for regulation of alcohol consumption, as well as proposed methods for its optimization. The authors examine the questions of the efficiency of state regulation of the production and consumption of alcohol. Leaning on the historical material, the article analyzes the specificities of the current concept on reducing alcohol consumption. The authors summarize the experience on the fight against alcohol abuse in the imperial, Soviet and modern Russia; as well as substantiate the necessity of introduction of state monopoly on the production and sales of alcohol.
History of regions of Russia
Tatarnikova A.I. - The extremes in the everyday life of the population of Western Siberia during the time of epidemics of the late XIX Ц early XX centuries pp. 40-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30475

Abstract:  The object of this research is the population of Western Siberia considering its social diversity (city people, peasants, migrant peasants). The subject of this research is the everyday life of residents of the region in the extreme conditions of mass epidemics that took countless lives. The author characterizes the state of surrounding environment, level of medical development and sanitary-hygiene culture of the population, and determines their effect upon high mortality rate caused by different types of epidemics. Attention is focused on the behavioral practices, survival strategies of various social groups during the time of epidemics, which provoke changes in the everyday, routine life. The study is based on the complex approach with the elements interdisciplinary research allowing to trace the transformation of traditional values and mentality under the influence of extreme conditions of life. The conclusion is made on the impact of extreme conditions of the time of epidemics upon the transformation of everyday behavioral models and pursuit of survival strategies, reflected in the gradual alienation from the irrational ways of fighting infection, turning to official medicine, usage of decontamination means, cleaning of housings and curtilages, due attention to personal hygiene. During the time of epidemics, emotional and behavioral reactions were majorly affected by such factors as the affiliation to a certain social group, level of financial wealth, level of education, individual peculiarities of psyche and perception of illness and death of family members, attitudes on “unresolvable” problems of deviant and delinquent behavior.
Shumkin G.N. - The problem of quality of consumer goods in USSR during the 1955-1975 (on the materials of clothing industry of Krasnodar Krai) pp. 55-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30640

Abstract:  The object of this research is the fuel and energy base of ferrous metallurgy of Ural in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Leaning on the materials of Compilations of statistical records of mining industry of Russia” for 1882-1911, the article examines the dynamics of consumption of the various types of fuel; determines the total volume of fuel consumption (tonnage-wise of reference fuel) and specific gravity of vegetal fuel (firewood, charcoal) and mineral fuel (bituminous coal, mazut, peat); reveals the portions of fuel consumed by iron plants and other sectors of mining industry of Ural. The records on collecting fuel by the Ural steel companies and its consumption by iron plants are compiled in a table (over 10,300 of reporting units). The acquired results are converted to reference fuel (by caloric coefficients) and subjected to analysis. The scientific novelty consists that the fact that the article is first in historiography to examine the fuel and energy base of ferrous metallurgy of Ural in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The conclusion is made that the  deficit of wood fuel, which has been the major energy resource, led to rationalization of the fuel and energy base. As a result, fuel consumption in semi-integrated steelworks (production of iron, steel, hardware) per production unit has reduced by five times in thirty years.  
Dolidovich O.M. - Food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining districts during the World War I pp. 71-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30691

Abstract: This article explores the problems of food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining districts during the World War I, as well as the measures taken by the government to resolve them. The author determines the peculiarities of the delivery of food products established by the beginning of the XX century under the influence of geographical position and transport infrastructure. The article demonstrates the impact of procurement activities of the Lensk gold-mining community upon the local market conjuncture, as well as the emerging difficulties such as shortage of delivery from Irkutsk and speculation of traders. It is noted that the administration of the province strived to maintain same rate of gold extraction and was careful to avoid the reoccurrence of the tragic events of 1912. The conclusion is drawn that the authorities were able to avert interruption in supply of the territories and prevent outrage on the part of workers until 1916. The use of narrative method helped to select and interpret the historical facts of the problem under consideration; historical-genetic method allowed identifying the causes that led to difficulties of food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining district during the wartime; systemic method played an important role in correlating the regional events with the spread of food crisis in the Irkutsk Province. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the archival and published sources the author is first to conduct special research on food supply of the northern gold-mining territories of Eastern Siberia during the World War I, assess the performance of the provincial government, as well as describe the priorities of economic policy of the imperial government in this remote region.
Tinikova E.E. - Marriage and divorce rates among the population of Southern Siberia in the middle of the XX Ц beginning of the XXI century pp. 81-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30599

Abstract: The object of this research is the peculiarities of demographic development of urban population of Southern Siberia over the period from 1945 to 2017. The subject of this research is the marriage and divorce rates as the paramount demographic processes. The territorial framework consists of the republics of Khakassia, Tyva and Altai. The author examines such aspects of the topic as factors that influence these processes and trends of their development, as well as assessment of the regional differences with regards to marriage and divorce among urban population. The analysis is conducted on the absolute number of marriages and divorces. Correlation between the amount of divorces and amount of marriages, total rates of marriage and divorce, matrimonial structure of urban population in accordance with the four All-Union and two All-Russian censuses. The scientific novelty consists in performing systemic analysis of the dynamics of marriage and divorce rates among urban population of Southern Siberia throughout a historical period of more than 70 years. The drawn conclusions demonstrate that the development of such demographic processes as marriage and divorce rates to a great extent are substantiated by the structural factors. The author also notes that considerable differences with regards to these demographic processes are observed between the representatives of various ethnic groups.
History and Ideology
Dorozhkin A.G. - Sino-Albanian split of 1977-1978 reflected in TASS correspondence pp. 93-104

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30871

Abstract: The subject of this research is the relations between the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the People's Republic of China in the period of 1977-1978. The subject of this research is the reflection of the then existing state of these relations in correspondence of the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS). During these years the relations between China and Albania have experienced major difficulties and almost reached the verge of collapse. The accredited abroad TASS correspondents dedicated the attention to this problem, but the indicated category of sources is yet insufficiently studied. The goal pf this work is to fill such gap. The information sources for this article include the TASS correspondence stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, periodical press, featured materials, as well as the works of E. Hoxha. The author concludes that Maoism’s endorsement of the right course in 1970’s led to alienation between the recent allies – China and Albania, and eventual collapse of their relations. Leaning on the materials of foreign news media, TASS correspondents regularly reflected the process of escalation of tension in bilateral relations during the 1977-1978, underlining the fraught debate between the ruling parties of these countries and the shift of ideological discrepancies into the intergovernmental sphere. The authors of foreign publications, which served as the reference materials for TASS correspondents, usually did not overestimate the possibility of restoring the relations between Albania and Soviet Union, which perhaps, affected the position that was ultimately held by Moscow.
History of economy and business
Gangur D.I. - The problem of quality of consumer goods in USSR during the 1955-1975 (on the materials of clothing industry of Krasnodar Krai) pp. 105-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30794

Abstract: The subject of this research is the quality of apparel manufactured by clothing factories of Krasnodar Krai during the 1950-1975. Based on the archival materials and periodical publications, the author analyzes the quality of the manufactured apparel and the impacting factors, as well as the measures taken by various authorities and structures aimed at its improvement. Reference to the Soviet experience, which in this aspect is yet insufficiently studied, may contribute to further development of national industry and increase of competitiveness of its products. The scientific novelty consists in conducting a special research dedicated to profound examination of the problem of quality of apparel within the indicated chronological framework, which for the first time is viewed on the materials of a particular region. It is concluded that the problem of quality was one of the key ones for the clothing industry. The comparative analysis demonstrates that during the 1950’s, the portion of defective goods has reached up to 50%. The author determines that it was cause by the outdated facilities and equipment, poorly qualified staff, low level of apparel design. The government and sectoral structures undertook measures aimed at improvement of quality of the products, including specialization of fabrics, advancement of technological process, modernization of the industrial production base, ideological campaigns, stricter quality control, expansion of the role of fashion houses. These measures led to the improvement of situation with regards to quality of manufactured apparel by the end of the indicated timeframe. However, the growth in quality was uneven from factory to factory.
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