Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of science and technology"
History of science and technology
Yashina A.V. - Science as an instrument of the Soviet state building during the 1920s 1930s pp. 1-9


Abstract: Within the framework of this article, the author analyzes the state of national science and society during the period of drastic transformations of the 1920’s – 1930’s. Examination of problems of the history of science along with its impact upon the transformation of socio0cultiral and economic context, interaction between the scholars and government during the pivotal period of the Russian history, allows rationalizing the existing strategies for the new scientific and social breakthroughs. The author describes the main features of transformation of the organization of science in Russia during the period under consideration, as well as analyzes “science” through the prism of social design. The research leans on the theories, data and methods in the context of historical, philosophical, anthropological, politological and sociological studies of science, technologies and engineering. The conclusion is made that the Soviet government that perceived science as the major driving force of not only of economic, but also social and political progress, established new requirements to the academic community and adjusted the conditions of its existence and functioning, which allowed the authorities to ensure the essential foundation for the economic development and social changes. The early Soviet period was characterized not only by the emergence of the new institutional form for the science, but also mobilization of the country’s scientific potential, experimental and, at times, revolutionary scientific projects. At the same time, excessive indoctrination of science, repressive and utilitarian nature of government turned science into the mechanism for implementation of their political objectives “here and now”, rather than the institution of the development of knowledge.
Shebyrova L.G. - Life and scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov in France pp. 12-27


Abstract: Based on the archive and published documents, this article examines the details of biography and scientific work of the Russian emigrant scholar Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov during his life in France, after 1919. This period is extremely important for the social history of science and history of biology. The goal of this work is to reproduce the new details of Metalnikov’s biography, which pertain to his scientific and social activity. The author conducts a historical-scientific analysis along with systematization of the scholar’s scientific works, archive and published documents that reveal the facts of his personal and professional path, as well as his views. The author thoroughly examines and determines the main directions of Metalnikov’s scientific work during within this timeframe, including the research on correlation between the immune system and nervous system, immunology and pathology of the insects, and biological methods of pest control. A number of new archive documents from the scholar’s epistolary heritage are being introduced into the scientific circulation. The author also reveals Metalnikov’s active participation in social life of the Russian scientific emigration, as well as his civil position, political views, and the given by Metalnikov scientific explanation.
Sharov K.S. - The role of Biblical prophecies within global historical process from the perspective of Isaac Newtons historiography pp. 13-21


Abstract: The object of this research is some of Isaac Newton’s unpublished archival manuscripts from Yehuda Collection preserved in the National Library of Israel (Jerusalem), Keynes Archive in the King’s College of Cambridge University, and Archive of the Library of Martin Bodmer Foundaiton (Cologny, Switzerland). The subject of this research is the civilizational theory of Isaac Newton. The goal lies in apprehension of the place and role of prophecies in the history of human society from the perspective of Newton’s civilizational theory. Particular attention is given to examination of the role of Biblical prophecies within Newton’s historiography. Methodology includes approaches, principles and procedures of archival research and source study, historical hermeneutics, structural analysis, and comparative literary studies. The following conclusions were made: 1) Hermeneutics of prophecies is one of the central parts of Newton’s civilizational theory; prophecies and historical sources differ only with regards to time – prophecies become history at the moment of their accomplishment.2) Newton believes that the entire global historical process is strictly predetermined by God’s will, since the creation of the world until the apocalyptic end of times; at the same time, prophecies are God’s voluntary revelation of facts about the forthcoming historical events.3) The components of Newton’s hermeneutics of prophecies are described.4) It is demonstrated that for Newton the heuristic value of Ancient Jewish and New Testament prophecies is much higher than the Antique and Ancient Eastern prophetic vision.The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first to systematize Newton’s outlook upon the role of prophecies within the course of world history sporadically spread through a number of manuscripts that are currently preserved in the three archives. 
Konov A.A. - Railway transport of Urals and Siberia in the 1956-1991: modernization of diesel locomotive traction pp. 14-29


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modernization of diesel locomotive traction in the railway transport of Urals and Siberia, its technical-economic effects in transportation process and development of logistics of the railway transport. The author sets a goal to unlock the technical and economic potential of diesel locomotive traction, and determine the causes of its gradual replacement with the electric traction. An attempt is made to analyzes the results of using diesel locomotive traction in the railways of Urals and Siberia, as well as objectively assess its implication for modernization of railway transport. The research is conducted within the framework of modernization theory. The modernization of diesel locomotive traction is a transitional state in the development of railway transport from steam locomotive traction towards the electric traction, aimed at increasing the cargo and passenger flows on railways along with estimated capacity of railway yards, and exploitation of new railway lines. The scientific novelty lies in studying the modernization processes on the materials of railway transport of Urals and Siberia. Within a decade, diesel locomotives displaces the steam locomotive traction from the main railroads, increased the estimated capacity of railway yards, enabled the formation and maintenance of the new railway network in the area of the West Siberian oil and gas complex. Moreover, the technical capabilities of diesel locomotive traction with regards on increased cargo traffic were limited; thus, it could not become an alternative direction in modernization of railway transport of Urals and Western Siberia. The priority vector in the development of railway transport became the electrification.
Egorova S.L. - The phenomenon of private correspondence in biographical context on the example of letters of the Antiquity Researcher Professor Natalia Vasilievna Vulikh pp. 45-57


Abstract: This article describes the life circumstances and scientific activities of the Doctor of Philological Science, Leningrad Professor of Antiquity, Vice-President of the International Society “Ovidianum” – Natalia Vasilievna Vulikh (1915-2012), who resided in Komi Republic (Syktyvkar, Ukhta) during the period of 1980’s – 2000’s. A set of letters by N. V. Vulikh over the period from 1981 to 2004, preserved in personal corpus of the Syktyvkar scholars-philologists A. E. Vaneev and I. M. Vaneeva of the Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The article applies the historical-biographical method that allows describing the persona of N. V. Vulikh from the standpoint of her life story and sociocultural context. Based on the letters, the author determines the creative contacts of N. V. Vulikh, geography of academic trips, topics of research and conference presentations, as well as the plans for continued academic activities. The work demonstrated N. V. Vulikh’s personal attitude to the events taking place in science and education, situation in the country, and her emotional disposition. A conclusion is made on the value of sources of personal origin for explication of the scholar’s scientific biography in the context the era.
Fando R.A. - Nicholas Sergeevich Obraztsov (1906-1966): life journey of the forgotten scholar pp. 50-57


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian scientific emigration to the United States. The subjects is the biography of the prominent entomologist Nicholas Obraztsov, who emigrated during the Great Patriotic War from the Soviet Union to Germany, and later the United States. His life journey is an illustration of a challenging fate of the Russian native, who happened to live in a foreign country, and was condemned to oblivion on his motherland. Referring to the scholar’s biography allows filling the gaps in the history of Russian natural science, which appeared due to a longtime suppression of the achievements of Russian emigrant scholars. The biography of N. S. Obraztsov is viewed with consideration of the psychological, sociocultural and thematic-disciplinary aspects. The main results lies in reconstruction of the life journey of the famous entomologist. The author analyzes the scientific contribution made by Obraztsov to the development of morphology and systematics of various groups of insects, publishing of scientific and reference literature, as well as creation of museum collections. The absence in the national historiography of the works and scientific activity of N. S. Obraztsov underlines the novelty of the presented material.
Bagaev A.B. - Modernization of small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century pp. 52-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century. This topic remains insufficiently studied but is important in studying the military art of Ossetian people. Within the indicated timeframe, Ossetia faced the modernization processes in the area of small arms: the old armament, especially rifles, was actively replaced with the new, more improved. The author thoroughly examines the two systems of breechloader that were widely spread in Ossetia during this time. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this question is subjected to extensive analysis for the first time. The results of this research covered the previously insufficiently studied question about the systems of rifles that comprised the inventory of Ossetians of the late XIX century. The author determined the time of replacement of the muzzle-loading flintlocks with the breechloaders. The article also describes the impact of the Russian military culture upon modernization processes in the area of armament of Ossetians.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Connecting youth to the scientific and technological achievements in the late 1950s early 1960s pp. 53-67


Abstract: This article is confined to the 100th anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The author examines the role of Komsomol in realization of the state youth policy aimed at connecting of young people to the scientific and technological achievements of the late 1950’s – early 1960’s. Documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as the collections of regulations” sealed as “top secret” compiled the main group of sources for this research. Komsomol is viewed as a distinct Soviet “ministry of youth”, a linking point between the state and youth. The system of value orientations is presented as a generalized index of the direction of interests, demands, social position, and level of spiritual development of the generation. The article demonstrated the dynamic actions of Komsomol with regards to the establishment of a positive attitude to knowledge among the youth through introducing the most recent achievements of science and technology. Two opposite trends were noticed the within the overall practice of implementation of state youth policy: one was aimed at enhancing the ideological component, while the other was of high pragmatism considering the changes in the country and worldwide, associated with the scientific and technological progress and actual economic needs.
Kochedykova M.M. - Collaboration of explorer of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra A. V. Zhuravsky with the Russian Geographical Society in the early XX century pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of this article is the history of science in the European Northeast of Russian of the early XX century. The object is the research activity of A. V. Zhuravsky in the field of geology over the period of 1903-1914 covering the territory of Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. The author examines the key directions in joint collaboration of Zhuravsky and the Russian Geographical Society on exploring the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. Thanks to the expeditionary and collecting activities of Zhuravsky, was established the first scientific institution in the European Northeast of Russia. The author’s main contribution lies in using as the source base of the unique expeditionary reports and publications of A. V. Zhuravsky, reports of the department of Mathematical and Physical Geography of the Russian Geographical Society, as well as the correspondence between its members. The sources are preserved in several archives and museums of Russia. A conclusion is made that the collaboration with the Russian Geographical Society in the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra in the early XX century led to the beginning of the systematic explorations, which pioneer was A. V. Zhuravsky. The process of joint activity resulted in acquisition of the new knowledge that allowed clarifying the importance of the immense territory. The interested in Zhuravsky’s exploratory work Russian Geographical Society tried to gather the documents on this region in their archives. The scientific novelty consists in author’s discovery that Zhuravsky’s activity on exploration of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra was comprehensively supported by the directorate of the Russian Geographical Society, including finding opportunities for compensating the expeditionary costs and supply with instruments for conducting the topographic surveys.  
Pyltcina M., Makhina S.N. - Agrarian scientific heritage of Carl Birnbaum pp. 77-84


Abstract: The subject of this research is the agrarian scientific heritage of the German Professor of Agriculture Carl Joseph Birnbaum, whose work “Guidance to Agriculture” achieved special prominence on Russia; the formation of surrounded him academic community and associated with it discourse; and the determination of scholar’s contribution into the development of agrarian science. The “Guidance to Agriculture” contains the theoretical bases of agricultural activity, and determination of important factors and circumstances affecting the progress of agriculture. Using the general scientific and special research methods, the authors note that C. Birnbaum through the profound retrospective analysis of the development of agrarian production of various peoples deduces the concept of the formation of state from the evolution of agriculture. A conclusion is made that the agrarian views of C. Birnbaum became a substantial breakthrough in establishment of the scientific methodology in agrarian sphere, as the questions discusses by the scholars and proposed for consideration within academic community of that time, remain relevant nowadays. Trying to develop his research strategy, C. Birnbaum analyzes the factors affecting the efficient agrarian production, among which he lists the labor, capital and land, as well as reasons on possibility of their mutually beneficial synthesis in the context of agricultural industry.
Brovina A. - Scientific research of the territory of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century: information potential of personal funds of the scientists of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 82-101


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the historical role of the scientific community in the cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. The object is the information potential of personal funds of the scientists in the context of scientific development of the northern territories of Russia in the XX century. The author examines the documentary heritage of scientists of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century, preserved in the funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Particular attention is paid to the funds that reflect the development of the key scientific areas for studying the northern territories – the history of geological, biological and humanitarian research. Examination of the personal funds of scientists of a particular region is a relevant trend in studying the archive funds, which is associated with keeping the modern documentary systems in the archives that allow preserving the knowledge of an individual of a specific historical era, as well as capturing mental peculiarities of the society. The conducted analysis is of great interest for the historians of science for studying the major milestones of life and creative path of the scientists, as well as contribute into the development of Russian science. Author’s special contribution lies in the introduction into the scientific circulation of the vast documentary complex of personal origin that indicates the input of the scientific community towards cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. It is determined that the personal funds of scientists may differ in quantitative and conceptual indexes, but always retain the typical structure usually presented in list of information blocks: science, teaching, organization of science, epistolary style, visuals. It manifests as a certain model, which through a particular set of documents on one hand is an example of a person with his interests, hobbies, life stages, career; while on the other – a slice of a specific historical period of the era itself.  The unique materials of the funds cover the history of scientific study of the Northern territories of Russia; provide an opportunity to assess personal contribution of the scientists into the scientific community and development of academic science in the Russian North in the XX century.
Bakhteev D.V. - Prerequisites for establishment and development stages of the technology of artificial intelligence pp. 89-98


Abstract: The object of this research is the technology of artificial intelligence. The subject of this research is the mechanisms and factors of the establishment and development of this technology. Philosophical prerequisites underlied the classical scientific works; however, the foundation for the establishment of the aforementioned technology is the studies in the area of neurophysiology and theory of computation. In the XX century, with the advancement of computer engineering, this technology received an impetus to development, which lead to its widespread proliferation and increased the interest of socio-humanitarian sciences, primarily jurisprudence and ethics towards it. The following conclusions were made. Methodological foundation of the modern technologies of artificial intelligence is the nervous system theory, which serves as prototype for designing the artificial intelligence systems on the basis of the artificial neural networks. The process of establishment and development of such technology was divided into five stages. The factors ensuring wide proliferation of the systems of artificial intelligence include: the possibility of modeling of the processes of human reasoning, collection and processing of large data, interdisciplinary and multifaceted nature of scientific research on this technology.
Fhilippova T., Simakova S. - Documentary scientific heritage of the geologist V. A. Dedeev pp. 102-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and development of geological science in the territory of the European North of Russia in the XX century. The object is the scientific activity of one of scientists who dedicated is entire life to development and studying of geology of the European North, the Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical sciences Vladimir Alekseevich Dedeev (1931-1997). On the basis of the archive documents that remained in funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Republic of the Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author examines the details of scientific biography and activity of the scientist associated with studying of the prospects of petroleum potential of the northern territories. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of value of the preserved documentary scientific heritage for studying V. A. Dedeev’s scientific activity and history of the development of geology throughout this timeframe. In conclusion, the author underlines that the documentary sources, preserved in the State Archive of Komi Republic, allow familiarizing with the academic results of the works of V. A. Dedeev. The modern petroleum, geology of the territory of European North in many aspects leans on the results of his research and scientific conclusions. The geologist’s works also contributed into the fuel and energy development of the northern region.
Fat'yanov I.V. - Regularities of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity in Russia pp. 114-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regularities of emergence of the experimental activity within law. The author points out on the existence of certain regularities within law which should be paid attention to in lawmaking. During the course of this work, the author simultaneously addresses two problematic areas: firstly, practical question of the functioning of the experimental activity in Russia – the activity of competent constituents, when takes place the approbation of the proposed innovations aimed at testing the theory; and secondly, a specifically scientific problem on the concept of the notion “regularities of the experimental activity” and the determinants which substantiate it. The object of this research is the public relations emerging in experimental activity. The author gives attention to the causes of experimental activity associated with the establishment of the local self-governance, and its improvement after the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. The author suggests an original definition to the notion “regularity of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity”, as well as detects certain determinants of the experimental activity within law.
Fando R.A. - L. D. Liozners school of sciences: at the dawn of studying regeneration pp. 116-127


Abstract: The subject of this research is L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The object of this research is the results of scientific works of Liozner and his mentees, as well as the key historical stages of origination and development of this school of sciences. In the 1930’s, when the first schools dedicated to studying regeneration appeared in Russia, L. D. Liozner meets L. Y. Blyakher and M. A. Vorontsova, who introduced him to the research in the field of experimental embryology.  Methodology is based on the comparative-historical, biographical, historical-scientific, and retrospective methods of research. The phenomenon of L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences was analyzed in various aspects: substantive-logical, psychological, and sociocultural. The author convincingly demonstrates that only after 1956, at the time of becoming the head of the Laboratory of Growth and Development in the Institute of Experimental Biology of L. D. Liozner, he began consolidating the scholars in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The author reveals the team members and the main vectors of activity of the school. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed analysis of scientific heritage of the mentees of L. D. Liozner. He brought up en entire pleiad of prominent scholars, including V. F. Sidorova, Z. A. Ryabinina, A. G. Babayeva, L. K. Romanova, S. S. Raytsina, and E. A. Efimov. It is underlined that the studies on regeneration, conducted by the students of L. D. Lizoner’s school of sciences, continue to this day, considering the recent scientific achievements.
Zharova E. - The Laws on the Awarding of Academic Degrees in the Russian Empire as the Reflection of Differentiation in Biological Sciences pp. 236-272
Abstract: The process of formation, development and differentiation of biology sciences in the Russian empire is considered in terms of the laws on the awarding of academic degrees. Changes of the legislation in this area reflect not only the system of scientific certification, but also the formation of various branches of biology as the science that developed in the XIX century. 
Kozhevina M.A. - The preconditions of the genesis of the Russian juridical science as a social institute pp. 430-459


Abstract: The article covers the problems of Russian juridical science as social institute. The author exposes and analyses factors, which influenced the genesis of the Russian juridical science using the institutional approach as the main mean of research. The author underlines the necessity the only criterion of periodization of the Russian juridical science. In the article, the period of XVIII century reforms was considered as time of formed preconditions for the genesis of Russian juridical professional and scientific communities and for the development of Russian law education.
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