Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Open access publishing costs > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

Публикация за 72 часа - теперь это реальность!
При необходимости издательство предоставляет авторам услугу сверхсрочной полноценной публикации. Уже через 72 часа статья появляется в числе опубликованных на сайте издательства с DOI и номерами страниц.
По первому требованию предоставляем все подтверждающие публикацию документы!
MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Security Issues

Identity of Migrants as the National Security Factor (the Case Study of Africans Residing in the Great Britain)
Karpov Grigory

PhD in History

Junior Research Associate at the Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences

123001, Russia, Moscow, ul. Spiridonovka, 30/1

Другие публикации этого автора



Today's West is facing transformation of migrants' identity as part of migration processes and socio-political changes. Incomers often develop identity that do not correspond or even contradict to the rules and traditions of the host society. Over the last decade the Great Britain has been encountering the problem of migrants' identification as a nettlesome and important issue for both indoor and outdoor security of the country. In this article Karpov analyzes the identify of Africans who migrated to and reside in the Great Britain today. He focuses on historical prerequisites of their identity, ideological and philosophical basis thereof, common features of all African migrants and specific features of individual African diaspores. The main research method used by the author is the historical review. Karpov has also applied analytical, statistical and comparative methods combined with the elements of synthesis and value-based approach. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the coverage and depth of the research. The key features of British Africans' identity include collegiality, religiousity, aloofness and desire to preserve languages and culture of their motherland. African diaspores living in the Great Britain have their own opinion on what is legal or illegal, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate. Some communities may be even hostile towards one another and the English community. According to the author, the British government themselves created conditions for the development of such specific features of migrants in the colonial and post-colonial eras. Taking into account the reducing number of the native population, the Great Britain is now facing a serious challenge. 

Keywords: Diaspora, Crime, Multiculturalism, Africans, Security, United Kingdom, Identity, Migration, Community, Religion



Article was received:


Review date:


Publish date:


This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

Stat'ya «Identichnost'». Novaya filosofskaya entsiklopediya: V 4 tt. M.: Mysl'. Pod redaktsiei V. S. Stepina. 2001.
Ethnicity // Economic and Social Data Service. URL: http://www.esds.ac.uk/government/dv/ethnicity/lfs/background.doc
Mohan G., Zack-Williams A. B. Globalisation from below: Conceptualising the Role of the African Diasporas in Africa's Development // Review of African Political Economy, 2002. Vol., 29. № 92. P. 211-236.
Cooper B. A New Generation of African Writers. Migration, Material Culture and Language. Oxford, 2008.
Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom // Office for National Statistics. URL: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-and-quick-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-the-united-kingdom---part-1/rft-ks201uk.xls
Twine F.W. A white side of black Britain: The concept of racial literacy // Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2004. Vol., 27. Issue 6. P. 884.
Karpov G.A. Britanskaya migratsionnaya politika vtoroi poloviny XX – nachala XXI vv.: uroki dlya Rossii // Natsional'naya bezopasnost', 2017. № 1. S. 15-41.
Killingray D. Africans in the United Kingdom: An introduction // Immigrants & Minorities, 1993. Vol., 12. Issue 3. P. 7.
Roots of the Future: Ethnic diversity of the Making of Britain. London, 1997. P. 69.
Osborne D. Writing black back: an overview of black theatre and performance in Britain // Studies in Theatre and Performance, 2006. Vol., 26. Issue 1. P. 14.
Chater K. Job Mobility amongst Black People in England and Wales during the Long Eighteenth Century // Journal Immigrants & Minorities Historical Studies in Ethnicity, Migration and Diaspora Volume 28, 2010. Issue 2-3: Belonging in Europe. P. 115.
Sherwood M. British attitudes to 'others'. URL: http://revealinghistories.org.uk/africa-the-arrival-of-europeans-and-the-transatlantic-slave-trade/articles/british-attitudes-to-others.html
Chater K. Black People in England, 1660- 1807// Parliamentary History, 2007. Vol. 26. P. 68-80.
Foy Ch. R. «Unkle Sommerset's» freedom: liberty in England for black sailors // Journal for Maritime Research, 2011. Vol. 13, № 1. P. 21-36.
Cason M.K. Resources for African Studies in Protestant Mission Societies in England // Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, 1972. Vol., 6. № 3. P. 501-503.
The Church's Contribution to Development in Zambia: A Research Report, Lusaka, 2000. P. 5-6.
Wilson C.E. Racism and Private Assistance: The Support of West Indian and African Missions in Liverpool, England, during the Interwar Years // African Studies Review, 1992. Vol. 35. № 2. P. 57-69.
Ferguson N. Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London, 2004. P. 160.
Daley P.O. Black Africans in Great Britain: Spatial Concentration and Segregation// Urban Studies, 1998. Vol. 35. № 10. P. 1704.
Killingray D. Significant Black South Africans in Britain before 1912: Pan-African Organisations and the Emergence of South Africa's First Black Lawyers // South African Historical Journal, 2012. Vol. 64. Issue 3. P. 394.
Colenso G. The 1907 Deputation of Basuto Chiefs to London and the Development of British–South African Networks // The International History Review, 2014. Vol. 34. P. 636.
Brewer H. The Antinomies of Black Identity Formation in West Africa, 1820–1848 // African Historical Review, 2011. Vol., 43. Issue 1. P. 2-10.
Adi H. The Comintern and Black Workers in Britain and France 1919–37 // Immigrants & Minorities, 2010. Vol. 28. P. 224–232.
Dawson A. The rise of the Black Internationale: Anti-imperialist activism and aesthetics in Britain during the 1930s // Atlantic Studies Global Currents, 2009. Vol., 6. Issue 2. P. 159-174.
Beckles H. Just cricket: black struggles for racial justice and equality // African Studies, 1999. Vol., 58. Issue 2. P. 171-175.
Higgs P. African Philosophy and the Decolonisation of Education in Africa: Some critical reflections // Educational Philosophy and Theory, 2011. Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia Published by Blackwell Publishing. P. 4-6.
Reynolds T. Black to the community: an analysis of ‘black’ community parenting in Britain // Community, Work & Family, 2003. Vol., 6. № 1. P. 29-32.
Mutema G. Religion and African Migration: A Survey // Religion Compass, 2000. № 4. R. 274.
Kalilombe P. Black Christianity in Britain // Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1997. Vol., 20. Issue 2. P. 306-323.
Adogame A. Betwixt Identity and Security: African New Religious Movements (ANRMs) and the Politics of Religious Networking in Europe. Center for Studies on New Religions, 2001. URL: http://www.cesnur.org/2001/london2001/adogame.htm
Mead N. The experience of black African religious education trainee teachers training in England // British Journal of Religious Education, 2006. Vol., 28. Issue 2. P. 173-184.
Mitton L. The Languages of Black Africans in England // Journal of Intercultural Studies, 2011. Vol., 32. Issue 2. P. 164.
Arthur J. «»Baro Afkaaga Hooyo!» A Case Study of Somali Literacy Teaching in Liverpool // International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2003. Vol. 6. Issue 3-4. P. 253.
Platt L. Future Identities: Changing identities in the UK – the next 10 years. London, 2013. P. 1-27.
We are doing our best’: African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, in England // Health and Social Care in the Community, 2012. Vol., 20. Issue 2. P. 216-223.
Tamboukou M., Ball S. Nomadic Subjects: young black women in Britain // Studies in the cultural politics of education, 2002. Vol., 23. № 3. P. 268-281..
Lam V., Smith G. African and Caribbean adolescents in Britain: ethnic identity and Britishness // Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2009. Vol., 32. № 7. P. 1248-1270.
Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Datasheets January 2011 to December 2011 // Office for National Statistics (ONS). URL: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=Population+by+Country+of+Birth+and+Nationality+Datasheets+January+2011+to+December+2011
Jordan G. An African presence in Europe // Cultural Studies Vol. 22, No. 2 March 2008. P. 337.
Country of birth by Proficiency in English // Office for National Statistics. 30 July 2014. URL: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/about-ons/business-transparency/freedom-of-information/what-can-i-request/published-ad-hoc-data/census/ethnicity/ct0270-2011-census.xls
Hopkins G. A changing sense of Somaliness: Somali women in London and Toronto // Gender, Place and Culture, August 2010. Vol., 17. № 4. P. 529-531.
Mohamed N. British Somalis: nomads no more // The Guardian, 7 August 2012. URL: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/aug/07/ritish-somalis-nomads-no-more
Population resident in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by country of birth // Office for National Statistics. URL: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality/2014/rft-table-10-underlying-datasheets-pop-by-cob-jan-14-to-dec-14.xls
The Nigerian Muslim Community in England. Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities // Change Institute, Communities and Local Government. London, 2009. P. 8-12.
Bloch A. Zimbabweans in Britain: Transnational Activities and Capabilities // Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2008. Vol., 34. Issue 2. P. 291.
McGregor J. ‘Joining the BBC (British BottomCleaners)’: Zimbabwean Migrants and the UK Care Industry // Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2007. Vol., 33. Issue 5. P. 812-820.
Mano W., Willems W. Emerging communities, emerging media: the case of a Zimbabwean nurse in the British Big Brother show // Critical Arts: South-North Cultural and Media Studies, 2008. Vol., 22. Issue 1. P. 104-105.
Lampert B. Diaspora and development? Nigerian organizations in London and the transnational politics of belonging // Global Networks, 2009. № 2. P. 165-167.
Robinson St. A British education has become a commodity bought by wealthy foreigners // The Spectator, 30 November 2013.
Population by Country of Birth and Nationality January 2014 to December 2014 // Office for National Statistics (ONS). URL: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality/2014/rft-table-5-pop-by-cob-jan-14-to-dec-14.xls
Tedam P. Witchcraft branding and the abuse of African children in the UK: causes, effects and professional intervention // Early Child Development and Care, 2014. Vol., 184. № 9-10. P. 1403-1414.
Hickley M. Islamic sharia courts in Britain are now «legally binding» // MailOnline, 15 September 2008. URL: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1055764/Islamic-sharia-courts-Britain-legally-binding.html
Nigeria: Multiple Forms of Mobility in Africa's Demographic Giant // Migration Policy Institute, 30 June 2010. URL: https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/nigeria-multiple-forms-mobility-africas-demographic-giant/
Kotecha S. Nigerian trafficking 'top priority', commissioner says // BBC News, 17 June 2015.
Kabir N.A. Young Somalis in Australia, the UK and the USA: An Understanding of Their Identity and their Sense of Belonging // Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 2014. Vol., 34. № 3. 259-260.
Macfarlane A., Dorkenoo E. Female Genital Mutilation in England and Wales: Updated statistical estimates of the numbers of affected women living in England and Wales and girls at risk — Interim report on provisional estimates. City University London and Equality Now, 2014. URL: http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/FGM%20EN%20City%20Estimates.pdf
El‐Solh C. F. Somalis in London's East End: A community striving for recognition // Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1991. Vol., 6. №. 4. P. 542-543.
Home Affairs Committee – Eleventh Report: Khat. Parliament. 29 November 2013. URL: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmhaff/869/86907.htm
Law I., Finney S., Swann S.J. Searching for autonomy: young black men, schooling and aspirations // Race Ethnicity and Education, 2014. Vol., 17. №. 4. P. 574-576.
Hallam S., Rhamie J. An Investigation into African-Caribbean Academic Success in the UK // Race Ethnicity and Education, 2002. Vol., 5. Issue 2. P. 151-153.
Wright S., Weekes D. Race and Gender in the Contestation and Resistance of Teacher Authority and School Sanctions: The Case of African Caribbean Pupils in England // Comparative Education Review, 2003. Vol., 47. № 1. P. 3-9.
Aspinall P.J., Hashem F. Are our data on teenage pregnancy across ethnic groups in England fit for the purpose of policy formulation, implementation, and monitoring? // Critical Public Health, March 2010. Vol., 20. № 1. P. 57-61.
Pasura D. Modes of incorporation and transnational Zimbabwean migration to Britain // Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2013. Vol., 36. Issue 1. P. 205-207.
Ochieng B. M. N. Black families’ perceptions of barriersto the practice of a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative study in the UK // Critical Public Health, 2013. Vol., 23. Issue 1. P. 6-9.
English Language Skills and Diabetes and Hypertension among Foreign-Born South Asian Adults in England // Public Health Reports, May-June 2006. Vol., 121. № 3. P. 336.
Karpov G.A. U Velikobritanii – afrikanskoe budushchee? // Aziya i Afrika segodnya, 2016. № 1. S. 59-64.
Hammond L. Somali Transnational Activism and Integration in the UK: Mutually Supporting Strategies // Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2013. Vol., 39. № 6. P. 1009-1012.
Pasura D. Competing Meanings of the Diaspora: The Case of Zimbabweans in Britain // Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2010. Vol., 36. Issue 9. P. 1445-1461.
Karpov G.A. Referendum o chlenstve v Evrosoyuze i migratsionnyi krizis v ES: est' li svyaz'? // Referendum o chlenstve Britanii v Evrosoyuze: khod, itogi i posledstviya. Ch. II. Doklady Instituta Evropy RAN № 331. M., 2016. S. 50-53.
Karpov G.A. Demografiya sovremennoi Velikobritanii: vzryv ili krizis? // Sotsiodinamika. 2017. № 9. S. 1-20.
Link to this article

You can simply select and copy link from below text field.

Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website